Poster Session

Adeyinka J. Adedeji

Sandra I. Ijoma, Rebecca B. Atai,
Banenat B. Dogonyaro,
Jolly A. Adole, Maurice A. Nanven, Onyekachukwu Osemeke,
Ibrahim A. Waziri, Yakubu J. Atuman, Nicholas A. Lyons, Kim Stevens, Philippa M. Beard, Georgina Limon

Introduction
Sheeppox and goatpox (SGP) are transboundary, highly contagious infections affecting sheep and goats with characteristic clinical signs. SGP affect large populations of small ruminants in Africa, Asia and the Middle East and, as a result, jeopardise farmers’ livelihoods and contribute to rural poverty. Despite their importance, studies looking at factors that increase the risk of sheeppox virus and goatpox virus (SGPV) exposure and infection are limited.

Material and Methods
A cross-sectional study was conducted in three states of Northern Nigeria (Bauchi, Kaduna and Plateau) to assess the extent and geographic distribution of SGP seropositivity in backyard small ruminant flocks. In addition, identify factors associated with higher risk of SGP and hot spot areas at higher risk of SGPV exposure.

Results
Sera samples from 1,800 small ruminants originating from 300 households were collected and 29 (1.6%) were found to be seropositive for SGP. Positive animals came from 19 households. Spatial scan statistic identified eastern Bauchi to be an area of high risk and farms within this cluster were 8.8 times more likely to have at least one animal seropositive than farms outside the cluster (p<0.001). At the animal-level, three significant clusters were found corresponding largely with the farm-level cluster, with the addition of a small cluster in the northern tip of Kaduna and South Plateau. The odds of being seropositive were higher in older animals (>24months; OR=8.0, p=0.008) and small ruminants with a history of clinical SGP (OR=16.9, p=0.01). Bringing new small ruminants into the household and having a history of SGP in the herd were the main risk factors identified at household level. However, the odds decreased by a third (p=0.05) if time between bringing animals into the household and sampling was over a year.

Discussion
Results from this study can provide key inputs to design risk-based surveillance and intervention programmes in the area.

Rate This:
Click to rate this post!
[Total: 113 Average: 4.7]
Share on facebook
Share on twitter
Share on linkedin

 

 

Lazarus, D

Opperman, P A., Sirdar, M M, Wolf, T E., van Wyk I., Rikhotso, B O., Fosgate, G T

Introduction
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a transboundary animal disease that has a major impact on livestock production, regional and international trade and livelihoods of smallholder farmers in endemic settings. FMD can be transmitted through direct contact between animals, and thus between herds and flocks through animal movements.


Materials and methods
A cross-sectional survey using a semi-structured questionnaire was administered for the study. Independent-focus group discussions employing participatory mapping and semi-structured interviews were conducted among smallholder goat farmers within the FMD protection zone with vaccination of South Africa. Information on animal movements were collected with each origin and destination described as a node and respective connections between nodes as ties.


Results
Data were collected from 116 questionnaire respondents and 13 focus group discussions. Overall, 22% (95%CI: 16 – 31) of the questionnaire respondents moved new animals into their holdings during the previous 12 months while 56% (95%CI: 47 – 65) moved animals out of their holdings. A total of 134 participants attended the focus group discussions with 68% (91/134) being male and 32% (43/134) female. Participants reported 37 nodes and 78 ties with an overall livestock movement network density of 0.06 (SD 0.2) across the study area. There was more movement out of holdings among respondents within the study area relative to incoming movement of livestock. Four locations within the (currently suspended) FMD-free zone of the country had connections with goat movements from the study area. Sixty percentage (95%CI: 51 – 69) of respondents were unaware of the need to obtain official veterinary movement permits.


Discussion
Goats are moved without official movement permits to the FMD free zone of the country. Since goats are susceptible to FMD, these movements put the country at risk of future outbreaks within the FMD free zone. We recommend that education programmes and risk-based control measures be implemented to prevent the spread of FMD and other transboundary diseases.

Click to rate this post!
[Total: 113 Average: 4.7]
Share on facebook
Share on twitter
Share on linkedin

E.A. Foglia

D Ekwem, G Pezzoni, M Calzolari, S Grazioli, J Buza, G Shirima, R Reeve, E Brocchi, T Lembo

1 Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Lombardia e Dell’Emilia Romagna (IZSLER), Brescia, Italy

2 The Boyd Orr Centre for Population and Ecosystem Health, Institute of Biodiversity, Animal Health and Comparative Medicine, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom

3 The Nelson Mandela African Institution of Science and Technology, Arusha, Tanzania

Introduction  

Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) threatens livelihoods of subsistence farmers in Africa. Livestock movements to access resources (grazing/watering) and markets facilitate viral spread. Combining phylogenetic analyses with information on village connectivity through livestock movements can reveal sources of introduction and untangle dynamics of spread. In order to test this, we investigated FMD outbreaks in northern Tanzania in 2018.  

 

Materials and methods 

Samples from cattle showing FMD clinical signs were collected and processed by virus isolation, antigen typing and VP1 sequencing. Data on inter-village connectivity through communal resource areas and markets were generated through participatory mapping. The evolutionary history was inferred using Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods.   

 

Results 

In 2018 circulation of serotypes O and SAT2 occurred in two distinct areasIntroduction of serotype O was linked to neighbouring market. Type O isolates belonged to topotype O/EA-2 and formed a cluster involving only Tanzanian and Kenyan viruses, whilst earlier (2014) variants  fell in another clade including viruses from the wider East African region (Tanzania, Uganda, Kenya and Zambia). SAT2 isolates belonged to topotype SAT2/IV and formed a specific clade clustering within a larger lineage comprising earlier viruses (2012, 2016) of eastern African origin. Local spread of both O and SAT2 viruses was traced back to communal resource areas shared amongst the affected villages.            

 

Discussion 

Inter-village connectivity through regional and local livestock trade as well as shared resource areas is high and responsible for FMD spread. Circulation of type O viruses in 2014 points to wider (regional) trade-associated networks. Transboundary movements between Kenya and Tanzania likely triggered 2018 outbreaks. While the origin of SAT2 viruses was less clear, local circulation of both serotypes was linked to communal resource areas. The identification of connectivity points offers opportunities for targeted interventions that would enable livestock mobility, hence animal survival and subsistence economy. 

Click to rate this post!
[Total: 113 Average: 4.7]
Share on facebook
Share on twitter
Share on linkedin

G. Silva

N. Cárdenas, J. H. H. Grisi Filho
Department of Preventive Veterinary Medicine and Animal Health, School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, University of São Paulo, Av. Prof. Orlando Marques de Paiva, 87, Cidade Universitária, São Paulo, SP, CEP: 05508-270, Brazil.

Introduction 

In regions with a low prevalence of bovine tuberculosis, slaughterhouse surveillance plays an important role in disease detection. Farms that send animals to slaughterhouses are constantly monitored by this surveillance. However, since animals can be traded between different premises, the outreach of this system is not limited to these premises only, but could potentially reach indirect trade partners as well. This work aims to estimate and characterize the cattle herd that could be monitored directly and indirectly by the inspection routine and identify premises and regions that are not being covered by the slaughterhouse surveillance. 

 

Materials and methods 

An animal movement contact network was reconstructed from a brazilian state’s cattle movement database. This database includes information concerning 79,685 premises, 813,011 movements and 17,157,376 animals moved throughout the year of 2015. We identified the number of premises and animals under direct and indirect slaughterhouse surveillance in this state, determining also the set of premises that were not monitored at all. 

 

Results 

According to preliminary results, slaughterhouses were connected up to 5 indirect neighbors in the trade network. 23.8% of the premises sent animals to slaughterhouses, which represents 15.6% of the state’s cattle premises and 15.5% of the state’s total amount of cattle. 65.6% of the premises in the state moved animals, and 21.6% of those were not connected to slaughterhouses (neither directly or indirectly), and therefore unable to be reached by the slaughterhouse surveillance. In total, 48.5% of the state’s premises and 35% of the state’s cattle were not covered by the slaughterhouse-based surveillance system. 

 

Discussion 

Network analysis is a useful tool to understand the outreach of the slaughterhouse-based surveillance system. Determining regions with poor coverage of this surveillance can help in the design of complementary surveillance components suitable to the reality of these populations. 

Click to rate this post!
[Total: 113 Average: 4.7]
Share on facebook
Share on twitter
Share on linkedin

I. Mugezi

M. Kimaanga , A. Namwabira , E. Chevanne , O. Nekouei M. McLaws P. Motta , T. Dulu & K. Sumption

1 Department of Animal Health, Ministry of Agriculture, Animal Industries and Fisheries, Plot 14 -18 Lugard Avenue, Entebbe, Uganda

2 European Commission for the Control of Foot-and-Mouth Disease, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Rome, Italy

3 State Department of Livestock, Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock, Fisheries and Irrigation, Cathedral Road, Nairobi, Kenya

Introduction
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is endemic in Uganda, and the country is following the Progressive Control Pathway for FMD control to identify key risks and reduce the impacts of the disease. Pastoral and trade-related movements play a key role in the spread of FMD in East Africa where borders are porous and movement control limited, and the districts along the Uganda-Tanzania border have frequent cattle movements particularly during the dry seasons. During 2018 and 2019, legal movements alone from the Ugandan border districts to areas characterized by semi-intensive (urban-peri urban) and agro-pastoral livestock production in 40 districts country-wide involved more than 43,000 heads of cattle.


Materials and methods
The World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) risk assessment framework was applied to qualitatively assess the risk of FMDV spread from the border districts through live cattle movements. Risk pathways were developed to assess the likelihood of entry and exposure, and identify to key factors and husbandry practices that facilitate the introduction and transmission of FMDV in cattle.


Results
The likelihood of release of FMDV from the border districts was assessed to be high, via movements of cattle for grazing, breeding and slaughter purposes. Subsequently, the likelihood of exposure of cattle to FMDV was estimated to be high in agro-pastoral areas and low in semi-intensive, urban-peri urban areas.


Discussion
The findings from this assessment will inform the national risk-based strategic plan for the control of FMD. Targeted vaccination, construction of infrastructure in livestock markets, farms and along stock routes, increasing collaboration among veterinary inspectors and agriculture police, and strengthening epidemio-surveillance data collection, analysis and dissemination were identified as key control measures. This risk assessment methodology can be applied to inform risk-based control strategies of other, similar diseases.

Click to rate this post!
[Total: 113 Average: 4.7]
Share on facebook
Share on twitter
Share on linkedin

K. Absalanfard

M. M. Simrouni​, N. Ranjbar, A. Kosari, M. Bahrani
Iran veterinary organization, Bushehr veterinary office, Bushehr city, IRAN
Click to rate this post!
[Total: 113 Average: 4.7]
Share on facebook
Share on twitter
Share on linkedin

Patrick Bastiaensen

Sub-Regional Representation for Eastern Africa, World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), P.o.box 19687, 00202 Nairobi, Kenya
Click to rate this post!
[Total: 113 Average: 4.7]
Share on facebook
Share on twitter
Share on linkedin

R. Bradhurst

Graeme Garner, Shankar Yadav, Maria de la Puente, Martin Lange, Hans-Herman Thulke, Joaquín Vicente, Germán Cáceres Garrido, Koen Mintiens

1 Centre of Excellence for Biosecurity Risk Analysis, School of BioSciences, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia.


2 European Commission for the Control of Foot-and-Mouth Disease, FAO, Rome, Italy

3 Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Department of Ecological Modelling, Leipzig, Germany


4 National Institute on Wildlife Research (IREC), University of Castilla-La Mancha and Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Ciudad Real, Spain


5 Animal Health and Traceability, Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, Spain

Introduction

The challenge of planning for transboundary animal disease outbreaks can be compounded by the complex epidemiological interplay between livestock, wild animals, and the environment. Wild boar populations can form direct and indirect spread pathways for contagious livestock diseases such as FMD, ASF and CSF, both within and between countries. In this paper we describe the development of a decision support tool to assist disease managers explore the sometimes unpredictable interface between domestic pigs and wild boar.

 

Materials and methods

EuFMDiS is a continental-scale modelling platform of livestock disease spread and control that simulates transmission within and between countries. It has been designed to support emergency animal disease planning in Europe, with the spread and control of FMD in seven central European countries used as a test case. In this study, EuFMDiS was extended to include the spread of livestock disease in a wild boar population and between domestic pigs and wild boar. The test case for the study was the spread and control of CSF in Spain. Key aspects of the conceptual model are presented, including the representation of wild boar ecology over time and space, and regional and seasonal influences on the spread of disease between wild boar groups, and between wild boar and domestic pigs.

 

Results

The wild boar population in Spain was represented as a raster-based time series of population counts per 2 km2 grid cell. The spread of disease between wild boar groups was represented by jump-diffusion spread pathways informed by regional and seasonal influences on contact and transmission. The spread of disease between domestic pig herds and wild boar groups was represented by bi-directional spatial kernels informed by regional, seasonal, and production system influences on the risk of transmission.

 

Discussion

The study produced a functional prototype of the spread and control of CSF in Spanish domestic and wild swine. A key modelling outcome was the successful fusion of an existing agent-based model of livestock disease transmission with a new geographic automata model of wildlife disease transmission.

Click to rate this post!
[Total: 113 Average: 4.7]
Share on facebook
Share on twitter
Share on linkedin

Rosanne M. F. De Jong

Hannah Baker, Martin Walker, Simon Gubbins, Anna Ludi, Georgina Limon, Kristy Officer

1 Royal Veterinary College, UK
2 The Pirbright Institute, Pirbright, UK
3 Animal Asia Foundation, Vietnam

Introduction
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) outbreaks were reported in 2011 in two housing facilities at a Vietnamese bear rescue centre, affecting Asiatic black bears (Ursus thibetanus) and a Malayan sun bear (Helarctos malayanus).

 

Material and methods
Demographic data of all animals housed in the centre at the time of the outbreaks (n=79) was collected, as well as blood samples drawn from 23 bears at different timepoints. Samples were tested for FMD non-structural proteins (NSP) and virus neutralisation test (VNT). FMD cases were defined as animals showing FMD clinical signs. Epidemic curves and transmission maps were generated for each outbreak. Outbreak-specific incidence rates (IRs) were calculated and risk factors for showing clinical signs were identified. Time-dependent reproduction numbers (Rt) were estimated. The relationship between seroconversion and clinical signs was described over time and the time-to-detection of FMDV antibodies was analysed using survival analysis.

 

Results
The IR was 2.63 (95% CI: 0.84-8.17) and 21.85 (95% CI: 12.94-36.89) per bear-year at risk in the first and second outbreak, respectively. Mean Rt estimates peaked at 1.47 (95% CrI: 0.18-4.13) and 5.35 (95% CrI: 2.42-9.48) in the two outbreaks. There was strong evidence for a decrease in odds of showing clinical signs per year of age (OR=0.59, 95% CI: 0.41-0.84, p=0.004). All FMD cases seroconverted by VNT and 35.3% (n=6/17) were positive for NSP antibodies. Most bears not showning clinical signs (83.3%; n=5/6) seroconverted by VNT and 50% (n=3/6) showed antibody responses to NSP. Bears seroconverted as early as 9-days post clinical-onset and remained seropositive until the last tested serum sample collected 4.5 years after the outbreak.

 

Discussion
This study provides initial epidemiological parameters of FMD in bears. FMDV is easily spread between bears in proximity and is capable of causing clinical and subclinical disease, both of which appear to induce rapid and long-lasting immunity.

Click to rate this post!
[Total: 113 Average: 4.7]
Share on facebook
Share on twitter
Share on linkedin

Sarah R. Mielke

Mark Moritz, Laura Pomeroy, Rebecca Garabed

1 The Ohio State University College of Veterinary Medicine, Dept. Of Veterinary Preventive Medicine, 1920 Coffey Road | Columbus, OH 43210 

2 The Ohio State University College of Arts and Sciences, Dept. Of Anthropology, 174 W. 18th Avenue | Columbus, OH 43210 

3  The Ohio State University College of Public Health, Division of Environmental Health Sciences, 1841 Neil Avenue 

Introduction 

Foot-and-Mouth Disease virus (FMDV) the causative agent of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), is a high priority infectious disease that requires extensive planning in disease-free countries and zones to develop and maintain prevention and control strategies. Although the virus and disease have been intensively studied, viral persistence in tropical environments, has largely been overlooked and assumptions regarding viral persistence are primarily based on limited data from decade’s old research.  

Materials and Methods 

Our previous meta- and survival analysis of literature and subsequent regression analysis of field data suggests that FMDV could persist in tropical settings when high temperatures and high relative humidity (RH) exists. Such conditions exist in many regions with high FMDV circulation, leading us to question how FMDV environmental survival influences disease dynamics as an indirect route of transmission in these settings. To assess this question, we incorporated movement data and viral decay equations in an agent-base model of FMD in the Far North Region of Cameroon. 

Results 

Simulation using both density- and frequency-dependent models illustrated that indirect transmission defined seasonality better than animal movement, accounting for 25 and 29% of infections in sedentary herds, respectively and 1.2% of infections in mobile herds (in both methodologies). Though indirect transmission seems to define seasonality, direct transmission contributes more infections to the overall impact of the epi-endemic. Additionally, we found contradictions in owner reported infections for sedentary and mobile herds when making comparisons to the predicted epi-endemic transmission resulting from indirect spread.  

Discussion 

In sedentary herds, owner reported infections, occurring early in the dry seasondid not align with predicted transmission. However, in mobile herds the predicted epi-endemic transmission did align with these owner reports, suggesting that disease dynamics differ by herd type. Current data suggests that countries should consider climatic influences when developing risk calculations, but increased field studies and comparisons with epi-endemic data are needed.  

Click to rate this post!
[Total: 113 Average: 4.7]
Share on facebook
Share on twitter
Share on linkedin

Syed M. Jamal

Salman Khan, Michael Eschbaumer, Graham J. Belsham

1 Department of Biotechnology, University of Malakand, Chakdara, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan 

2 Institute of Diagnostic Virology, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut (FLI), Greifswald-Insel Riems, Germany 

3 Department of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark 

Click to rate this post!
[Total: 113 Average: 4.7]
Share on facebook
Share on twitter
Share on linkedin

T. Chaligava

T. Khargaladze, F. Rosso, C. Potzsch

1 European Commission for the Control of Foot-and-Mouth Disease (EuFMD), Food and Agricultural Organization, Rome, Italy 

2 National Food Agency (NFA) of the Ministry of Environmental protection and Agriculture (MEPA), Tbilisi, Georgia 

 

Click to rate this post!
[Total: 113 Average: 4.7]
Share on facebook
Share on twitter
Share on linkedin

T. Makara

S.Sorn, D. Holl1,S. Tum , B.Seng , M. Hak, P.Yourk, S. Poung, B. Um

1 General Directorate of Animal Health and Production (GDAHP)
2 Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nation (FAO)
3 Kampong Cham National institute of Agriculture (KNIA)
4 Provincial Office of Animal Health and Production, Kampong Cham (POAHP)
5 Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA CBRP)

Foot and mouth disease Prey Veng Provincial had been found, six cases of FMD were outbreak in 2017 and six of the 23 villages in 2017 and some of years. My study focus three purposes: to find the temporal and place, presence and type of FMD and farmers ’prevention and control of FMD.

The study, using the Longitudinal study method and the Convenience sampling for sample collecting from animal. A total of 47 animal and lymph nodes were collected and 156 interviewees. According to the result of FMD outbreak, there are 5 districts: 10commune, 16 villages in Prey Veng province. Most cases occurred between January and March and May and August, and laboratory results showed positive results for FMD serotype (O). Farmers’ knowledge and practice for FMD prevention are still limited, with most of them raising cattle still follow traditional practice and, on the other hand, less involved in vaccinations, and the circulation of traders buying cattle and livestock from one area to another the main causes of disease are also.

Therefore, the study on Epidemical of foot and mouth disease in Prey Veng province from March 2018 to August 2019 occurred in 5 different districts with Preah Sdach and Peam Chor district having a relation of cattle traffic and purchase. the samples collection result found positive of foot and mouth disease serotype (O pen Asia) and foot and mouth knowledge from farmer’s understanding is still limited. It is recommended that the relevant institutions and farmers jointly and adequately vaccinate the animals as part of their efforts to reduce Foot and mouth disease.

Click to rate this post!
[Total: 113 Average: 4.7]
Share on facebook
Share on twitter
Share on linkedin

U.Gunasekera

M.R.Bertram, Le T. Vu, Do H. Dung, Bui H. Hoang, Nguyen T. Phuong, Vo V. Hung ,Long Nguyen, A.Perez, J.Arzt, K.VanderWaal

1 Veterinary Population Medicine, University of Minnesota, St Paul, MN, USA,

2 Foreign Animal Disease Research Unit, USDA-ARS, Plum Island Animal Disease Center, Greenport, NY, USA,

3  Department of Animal Health, Vietnam.

Introduction
The genetic and antigenic diversity of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) poses a significant challenge to successful control in endemic countries. The objective of this study was to evaluate sampling of asymptomatic livestock at slaughterhouses as a strategy for molecular surveillance of FMDV in Vietnam. Specifically, we investigated the extent to which viruses recovered from slaughterhouses reflect the diversity found in the source population, and whether they can serve as sentinels for the early detection of emerging outbreak strains.


Materials and Methods
Oropharyngeal fluid (OPF) samples were collected from 944 asymptomatic cattle and buffalo in two slaughterhouses at bi-monthly intervals in Long An and Tay Ninh provinces from 2017 to 2019. Sequences of the VP1 region were obtained from 72 animals, all of which were assumed to represent sub-clinical infection. To characterize viral diversity in the source population, sequences obtained from longitudinal sampling of OPF from farms (2015-2017) from eight provinces were also included. Outbreak sequences from clinical cases were available from 2009 to 2019 from passive surveillance and GenBank. A time-scaled phylogenetic tree was created for serotypes O and A using BEAST.


Results
Within a given serotype, time-scaled trees showed that a series of viral clades emerged, spread, and subsequently declined over time. For several serotype O clades that included outbreak, slaughterhouse, and farm sequences, subclinical slaughterhouse sequences pre-dated the outbreak sequences by 2-6 months. For other clades, sequences isolated from animals without clinical signs from farms clustered with older outbreak sequences, suggesting the sub-clinical circulation of the viral strain may occur up to 18 months after the observed outbreak.


Discussion
In endemic regions, routine sampling at slaughterhouses may provide a cost-effective means for molecular surveillance to identify circulating and emerging FMDV strains. Within this study, virus sequences obtained in this manner provided a subset of the diversity present in other regional viral populations.

Click to rate this post!
[Total: 113 Average: 4.7]
Share on facebook
Share on twitter
Share on linkedin

A. Naci. Bulut

F. I. Keskin, S. Cibelik, B. Deveci, F. Rosso, C. Potzsch

1 Şap Institute, Ankara, Turkey.

2 Central Veterinary Control Research Institute, Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry (MoFAL), Ankara, Turkey.

3 Animal Health and Quarantine Department, General Directorate of Food and Control (GDFC), Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry (MoFAL), Ankara, Turkey.

4 European Commission for the Control of Foot-and-Mouth Disease, Food and Agricultural Organization, Rome, Italy.

Introduction

Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is endemic in the Anatolian region of Turkey. In recent years, a national control strategy to achieve FMD free status has been implemented. One crucial component of this control strategy is the improvement of outbreak investigations (OI).

 

Materials and methods

Since FMD is currently endemic in the region, a comprehensive investigation under the lead of the Central Epidemiology and Monitoring Unit as described in the National Contingency Plan cannot be conducted for each outbreak.

Therefore, a standard operating procedure (SOP) describing a three stage OI plan has been developed. Here, outbreaks are prioritized in levels 1-3, depending on the epidemiological situation. As a result, a combination of specific measures, including data collection, source tracing, risk factor identification, study on effectiveness of control measures and economic evaluations are implemented depending on the identified OI level. The framework also identifies which levels of veterinary services, epidemiological teams and institutions are involved for each OI level. Further, to increase detection of outbreaks and reduce the number of unreported outbreaks, a clinical surveillance scheme was developed.

 

Results

The development of the OI and clinical surveillance schemes was part of a series of trainings jointly delivered by the General Directorate of Food and Control (GDFC) and the EuFMD to 262 veterinarians from all 78 provinces in Anatolia. EuFMD assistance to the GDFC aims to improve the ability of Turkey to control FMD, to promote progress along the Progressive Control Pathway for FMD control and subsequently to reduce the FMD risk in the country.

 

Discussion

The OI and clinical investigation scheme has been endorsed by the GDFC and since 2019, all outbreaks are investigated accordingly. By implementing this approach, elimination of clinical disease and virus circulation will be successfully achieved along to PCP stage 3. In future, this SOP could serve as a model for more animal diseases, including FAST (FMD and similar transboundary) diseases and more countries in the region.

Click to rate this post!
[Total: 113 Average: 4.7]
Share on facebook
Share on twitter
Share on linkedin

A. Dekker

Virology department, Wageningen Bioveterinary Research, Houtribweg 39, 8221RA Lelystad, the Netherlands

Introduction
In recent transmission studies with foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) it has been shown that surviving virus in the environment plays an important role in the transmission of FMDV (Bravo de Rueda et al. 2015, Colenut et al. 2020). In some stables a decimal reduction time of 21 days was estimated. Surviving virus in the environment is most likely important in transmission of FMDV. Using literature data and laboratory analyses, we estimated the decimal reduction time (based on inactivation curves) of FMDV in both suspensions and on dry surfaces, to compare the results with the finding in the experiment.

 

Materials and methods
To estimate the decimal reduction time of FMDV in suspensions we collected, in a non-systematic manner, literature data from quantitative studies on titre reduction in suspensions under various circumstances. Literature data were supplemented with studies performed in our laboratory. To measure the decimal reduction time of FMDV on dry surfaces we produced coverslips with dried FMDV. For this 100 µl of FMDV strain A10Holland was dried by air on sterile 9 x 32 mm coverslips in a class 2 safety cabinet for 2 – 3 hours. To test inactivation of FMDV, the coverslips were kept at various temperatures at various time intervals coverslips were collected in 1 ml cold medium and the titre of the remaining virus was determined. The logarithm of the decimal reduction time was plotted against the temperature.

 

Results
In the graph below the data of the FMDV inactivation in suspension is given with dots, the data of the dried FMDV is given by squares. The relation between temperature and the logarithm of the decimal reduction time, was clearly different between virus kept in suspension compared to dried virus.

The results found the transmission study fall within the 95% prediction interval of both the virus kept in suspension as well as dried FMDV.

 

Conclusion
FMDV can survive in the environment and play a role in transmission of FMDV. FMDV that was dried was more stable than FMDV in suspension. Good disinfection of material that can contain FMDV is therefore necessary

Click to rate this post!
[Total: 113 Average: 4.7]
Share on facebook
Share on twitter
Share on linkedin

C. Albanello

M. Goffredo, S. Baiomy, AS Dayhum, F. Rosso, B. Alessandrini

Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale dell’Abruzzo e del Molise “G. Caporale” – Teramo, Italy; 2European Commission for the control of food-and-mouth disease – FAO Rome, Italy

Introduction

Rift Valley Fever (RVF) is a mosquito-borne zoonosis which may cause significant losses for the livestock sector and have serious public health implications. Endemic in several African countries, it appeared in Libya in 2019, reporting several outbreaks. In the framework of the “HOLD-FAST” strategy, EuFMD – with the involvement of the Libyan NCAH, identified IZSAM – main promoter of the network ERFAN, which enhances veterinary research in Africa – as a reliable partner to cope with the emerging training needs. A pilot and innovative blended training course was designed, with a scalable approach for other Countries with similar needs.


Materials and methods

“Virtual Learning RVF and other Mosquito-borne arboviroses: entomological surveillance” is an innovative learning path delivered in 2020, during the Covid-19 pandemic. Based on interactive webinars, in-field and project work activities, its challenge was to recreate at distance laboratory training and mentoring methods to build veterinarians’ capacities to integrate specific and transversal skills for a quality entomological surveillance: a new format designed to overcome the class and laboratory “borders”, providing a fit-for-the-purpose, personalised and effective learning environment, and optimising time and resources.


Results

The webinars were focused on the species of mosquitoes, their epidemiological role in the transmission of arboviruses and methods for collecting and analysing samples. A key element was the use of HD Stereomicroscope in videoconferencing: learners were able to apply the identification techniques of the species of vectors and, through synchronous interaction tools (chat, Q&A, instant polls) their progresses were continuously monitored. The currently ongoing in-field project work is aimed at implementing entomological surveillance in risk locations, thanks to the constant backstop support of experts. A final follow-up will evaluate the learning outcomes and put the basis for an impact assessment.


Discussion
This project has designed a scalable model able to identify and address very target-specific learning objectives, in the past mainly satisfied through medium and long-lasting study visits in equipped laboratories. It opens new scenarios to provide laboratory researchers with concrete opportunities to immerge themselves into innovative and technology-based settings, overcoming traditional barriers. It may be adapted to any training context in which learners are expected to build their capacities in a lab environment.

Click to rate this post!
[Total: 113 Average: 4.7]
Share on facebook
Share on twitter
Share on linkedin

C. Colenutt

E. Brown, S. Esemu, L. Ndip, J. Wadsworth, A. Shaw, K. Sumption, S. Gubbins

1. The Pirbright Institute, Ash Road, Pirbright, UK.
2. Laboratory for Emerging Infectious Diseases, University of Buea, Cameroon.
3. European Commission for the Control of Foot-and-Mouth disease (EuFMD), Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations (FAO), Rome, Italy.

Introduction
Active monitoring and understanding the epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) form the foundations of control programmes in endemic areas. In many endemic areas, veterinary resources are limited, resulting in a requirement for simple sampling techniques in order to increase and supplement surveillance efforts. Environmental sampling provides such a method and requires little prior knowledge of the disease or experience of handling livestock. This study investigates the feasibility of using environmental sampling at livestock markets in an FMDV endemic setting.


Materials and methods
Environmental swab sampling methods developed for the detection of FMDV were used at cattle markets and abattoirs from six locations across Cameroon. A total of 1994 samples were collected. Testing for the presence of FMDV RNA was carried out at the Pirbright Institute (UK) using a panserotype specific rRT-PCR assay. Sequencing approaches were also used to assess suitability of samples for generating sequence data.


Results
8% (n=173) of samples were positive, with the majority of positive samples from two of the sampling locations (Douala, n=86/332 and Bertoua n=79/332). Sequencing of a relatively high titre sample using a probe enrichment approach resulted in the generation of sequence data, which allowed the sample to be identified as serotype O, EA-3 lineage.


Discussion
Environmental sampling provides a simple method for the detection of FMDV that avoids handling of livestock. Sampling at markets and abattoirs that are hubs for livestock movements presents an opportunity for broad-scale surveillance of livestock diseases, not just limited to FMDV. Environmental sampling could supplement surveillance of other diseases that are also the subject of eradication programmes, such as Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV). Sequencing environmental samples presents difficulties due to the low viral content of samples and poor quality of RNA. Developing sequencing protocols that overcome these issues could provide valuable information for surveillance programmes.

Click to rate this post!
[Total: 113 Average: 4.7]
Share on facebook
Share on twitter
Share on linkedin

D. Lefebvre

H.G. Ularamu, A. Haegeman, Y.S. Wungak, D.O. Ehizibolo, D.D. Lazarus, A. De Vleeschauwer, K. De Clercq

1 FMD Laboratory, Viral Research Division, National Veterinary Research Institute (NVRI), Vom, Nigeria
2 Service for Exotic Viruses and Particular Diseases, Department of Infectious Diseases in Animals, Sciensano, Groeselenberg 99, 1180 Brussels, Belgium

Introduction

Nigeria is a large densely populated country in West Africa. Most of its livestock is raised in a pastoralist production system with typical long distance migration in search of water and feed. As the demand for animal products largely exceeds the domestic production, large numbers of livestock are imported from neighboring countries without sanitary restrictions. In Nigeria foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) serotypes O, A and SAT2 are endemic since long time and FMDV serotype SAT1 is described again since 2015, after an absence of more than 30 years. Historically, outbreaks of FMD due to serotypes O, A, SAT1 and SAT2 were each time associated with trade of cattle entering Nigeria from neighboring countries.

 

Materials and methods

Samples from 27 outbreaks of FMD were collected in Nigerian cattle from 2012 till 2017 in 6 different States and in the Federal Capital Territory. FMDV was isolated and serotyped and further characterized by VP1 sequencing and phylogenetic analysis.

 

Results

Half of the outbreaks were characterized as FMDV topotype O/EA-3, while outbreaks with other serotypes and topotypes were – in descending order – less prevalent: A/Africa/G-IV, SAT1/X, SAT2/VII and O/WA.

 

Discussion

The genetic and phylogenetic analysis suggests a mixed origin of FMD outbreaks. Some outbreaks seem to be caused by sustained local transmission of FMDV strains present in Nigeria since a number of years ago, while other outbreaks seem to be related to repeated introductions of new FMDV strains, resulting from trade of cattle entering Nigeria from neighboring countries, with shorter periods of sustained transmission. The role of small ruminants and African buffaloes in the etiology of FMD in Nigeria is unclear. Our results indicate that systematic sample collection is essential to understand the complex concomitance of FMDV strains in Nigeria and essential to support the implementation of a vaccination-based control plan.

Click to rate this post!
[Total: 113 Average: 4.7]
Share on facebook
Share on twitter
Share on linkedin

Dženo Hadžović

N. Fejzić, S. Šerić-Haračić, M. van Asseldonk, R. Bergevoet

1 Veterinary Office of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Animal Health and Welfare Department, 71000 Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina, dzeno.hadzovic@vet.gov.ba
2 Veterinary Faculty of Sarajevo, 71000 Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina
3 Wageningen Economic Research, Wageningen University and Research, NL-6706 KN, Wageningen, the Netherlands

Introduction

B. melitensis in ruminants was first detected in Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1985 and it threatened to become a serious human health issue. Until 2009, in addition to passive surveillance, a test and slaughter strategy was implemented in ruminants, which did not bring the expected results. From 2009 onwards, a mass vaccination strategy was implemented.

The aim of this research is to evaluate the costs and benefits related to animal and human health of a B. melitensis control strategy in small ruminants in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

 

Methods

An epidemiological (SIR) and economic model was used to compare the vaccination program with a test and slaughter strategy.

 

Results

The vaccination strategy requires 75% less funds to control B. melitensis, and is the best option in terms of the estimated benefit-cost ratio and internal rate of return.

However, a test and slaughter strategy outperforms a vaccination strategy, in terms of faster reduction of prevalence, as well as in terms of the total benefits and net present value.

 

Discussion

Implementing a vaccination strategy to control B. melitensis in sheep and goat was from a veterinary, economic, and human health perspective the optimal decision.

If the costs of the intervention were shared between the sectors in proportion to the benefit to each, the public health sector would contribute 37%, which gives a cost-effectiveness of 328 Euro per DALY averted.

A vaccination strategy is not able to reduce the prevalence below 1% at herd level. Additional financial resources are required to totally eradicate B. melitensis by means of a test and slaughter strategy.

Ex ante and ex post evaluation of implemented strategies using epidemiological and economic decision support models can contribute to improve policy decision making and can assist both risk managers and policy makers in the prioritization of actions.

Click to rate this post!
[Total: 113 Average: 4.7]
Share on facebook
Share on twitter
Share on linkedin

E. Chevanne

A. Bakkouri, C. Pözsch, S. Baiomy, E. Mezzacapo, M. B. and F. Rosso

1 The European Commission for the Control of foot-and-mouth disease, The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy
2 Kimron Veterinary Institute, P.O Box 12, Bet Dagan, 50250, Israel

In January 2020, the EuFMD has conducted a transversal web-based survey among its trainee community to gain a better understanding of the Bovine Ephemeral Fever (BEF) situation, surveillance, and control in the 21 countries of European Union (EU) neighborhood (clustered in 4 regions), between 2015 and 2019; a period when reports of BEF in the scientific literature were scarce. Results will assist the identification of targeted activities for improved awareness and early detection capacity of FMD and Similar Transboundary Animal (FAST) diseases in the EU neighborhood.
The questionnaire includes 35 close-ended and open-ended questions divided into 7 sections: respondents’ sociodemographic, BEF occurrence, BEF diagnosis, BEF surveillance, BEF vaccine availability and vaccination, legislation applicable to BEF control and finally, knowledge self-assessment and perception of BEF and interest in training. Answers provided to this survey cannot be considered as official replies from the respondents’ institution or country.
A total of 270 EuFMD trainees responded to the survey (overall response rate of 17% (n=270/1612)). Official veterinarians were the most represented group among respondents, in all four regions. Forty percent of respondents reported previous experience with BEF. The disease was reported present or likely present at least one year between 2015 and 2019 in 12 countries, belonging to the four regions. The likely periods of BEF infections have been defined for each region. At least one of the three diagnostic assays for BEF was reported to be available in 11 countries. Passive surveillance for BEF has been conducted, or likely to have been conducted in 8 countries between 2015 and 2019, while active surveillance for BEF has been conducted, or likely to have been conducted in 7 countries during the study period. Culicoides surveillance is reported to be conducted in 4 countries. BEF vaccines were reported to be used or likely used in 7 countries of the EU neighborhood between 2015 and 2019. BEF was reported to be, or likely to be a notifiable disease in 7 countries. BEF was estimated to have a medium economic impact at farm level by the respondents.
The survey also explores BEF awareness and training opportunities for veterinarians in the EU neighborhood. Overall, respondents reported that the attention given to BEF was not sufficient, and assessed their own knowledge as poor on BEF epidemiology, diagnosis and control. Level of awareness on BEF among Official veterinarians, private veterinarians and livestock owners were reported to be low in all four regions. The survey report presents results that may assist laboratory and epidemiology networks in planning support activities, private stakeholders in identifying partnership opportunities, research groups in identifying knowledge gaps and training providers in addressing specific knowledge gaps.

 

 

Click to rate this post!
[Total: 113 Average: 4.7]
Share on facebook
Share on twitter
Share on linkedin

G. Torres

 A. Rozstalnyy, J.Y. Park, A. Kamata, C. Holley, C. Bebay

1 World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE)
2 Food and Agriculture Organization of United Nations (FAO)

African Swine Fever (ASF) has become a global threat impacting livelihood, food security, economic and rural development of many countries around the World.
The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) in collaboration with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) created a high-level technical Working Group (ASF-WG) under the Global Framework for the Progressive Control of Transboundary Animal Diseases (GF-TADs) to address the strategic challenges for the control of ASF. In July 2020 the Global Initiative for the control of ASF was launched as mandated by the Resolution N°33 at the 87th General Session of the World Assembly of OIE Delegates.
The Global Initiative was designed based on the lessons learnt from existing global animal disease control and eradication strategies under the GF-TAD. It provides a Logical Results Framework and an associated 2-year Operational Plan to achieve the global control of ASF. A Theory of change was developed understanding that control of ASF is feasible with the current risk mitigation tools, but for its success will require strong national leadership, regional support and a global coordination.
The Global Initiative defines 3 objectives:
Improve the capability of countries to control ASF using International Standards and best practices:
Establish an effective coordination and cooperation framework; and,
Facilitate business continuity ensuring safe production and trade to protect food systems.
It identifies key success factors: A disease intelligence framework, effective risk communication, operational and technical capability and sustainable resources.
The priority areas for the ASF-WG are: support regional Standing Group of Experts, monitoring and evaluating the 2 year Operational Plan, support risk communication and strengthen coordination with public and private partners.
By working together, the global control of ASF is feasible and will contribute to achieving the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals, notably Goals 1 (No Poverty) and 2 (Zero Hunger).
In this paper, the Global Initiative and its contribution to the global control of ASF is discussed.

Click to rate this post!
[Total: 113 Average: 4.7]
Share on facebook
Share on twitter
Share on linkedin

K. St. Charles

E. Walz, & M. Culhane

Secure Food Systems Team, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA

Introduction
Because Foot-and-Mouth disease (FMD) may spread between pig premises via machinery and personnel, understanding actions of key players in between-premises pig movements is essential. The practices and communication avenues of United States (US) truck drivers (i.e., truckers) moving pigs between farms and abattoirs are not well explored. This study identified truckers’ trends and their potential disease spread impact as well as disease-related communications between the US swine industry and truckers.

 

Methods
An online survey was administered by three US pork production companies to their contracted truckers. The survey asked 44 questions regarding preferences for receiving information from the greater swine industry, workload and hauling schedules, truck (i.e. trailer/cab) cleaning/disinfection (C&D) practices, and actions at farms and abbatoirs.

 

Results
The majority of truckers cited pork producers, abbatoirs, employers, and fellow truckers as information sources. Texting, then phone and email, were primary communication methods. The largest proportion of truckers delivered 6 to 10 hog loads weekly (37/80); with the majority (60/80) picking up at 5 to 7 farms weekly and delivering to 2 or more abbatoirs weekly (63/80) from >2 companies (43/80). Almost all reported getting out to help load pigs on-farm (77/80) and unload at the abbatoir (77/80). Typical C&D included washing trailers between every load (74/80) and cab cleaning either once daily (28/80) or once weekly (39/80). Reported PPE usage on-farm and at abbatoirs was highly variable.

 

Discussion
Multimodal approaches may be necessary to reach and directly inform the entire trucking workforce with proper messaging from swine-focused groups and agencies. Based on truckers’ workloads, in an FMD outbreak event, disease spread may be possible between multiple farms, abbatoirs, and swine companies if no mitigation occurs. Transportation biosecurity exists, especially trailer C&D; however, areas of concern include truckers helping load and unload animals, especially when coupled with inconsistent PPE usage.

 

Click to rate this post!
[Total: 113 Average: 4.7]
Share on facebook
Share on twitter
Share on linkedin

O. Nekouei

M. De la Puente-Arevalo, E. Mezzacapo, T. Alexandrov, A. Miteva

1 Department of Infectious Diseases and Public Health, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong

2 European Commission for the Control of Food and Mouth Disease (EuFMD), FAO, Rome, Italy

3 Bulgarian Food Safety Agency, Sofia, Bulgaria

 

Introduction

Transboundary High-Risk Area Coordinated Epidemio-Surveillance Programme (THRACE) has been in place since 2013, including bordering areas of Bulgaria, Greece and Turkey, with the primary goal of providing continuous evidence of freedom from foot and mouth disease (FMD) and to early detect any possible incursions of FMD to this region. Collected data have regularly been analyzed using a deterministic model (Cameron Model) to estimate the probability of freedom from FMD over time. Although current surveillance activities include other FAST diseases, there has been no model in place to analyze the resultant data. The present study was conducted to estimate the probabilities of freedom from PPR and SGP by adapting the original Cameron model.

 

Materials and Methods

Meetings were held with representatives of Bulgaria and Greece to draw the most plausible input parameters required in adapting the model to the context of each country. These parameters were mainly based on available literature and opinion of regional experts. To partially account for the uncertainty around the parameters, a sensitivity analysis was conducted using two scenarios with the highest and lowest plausible values for the controversial input parameters in order to evaluate their impacts on the probability of freedom.

 

Results

The probabilities of freedom from both diseases under the two scenarios are currently estimated to be above 97% in Bulgaria and Greece. Differences between the two scenarios were minimal (approximately, 1%), indicating that output probabilities were quite robust to the variations in controversial inputs; e.g., surveillance component sensitivities and the likelihood of the incursion of PPR and SGP.

 

Discussion

The current surveillance systems seem to be adequate and reliable in providing ongoing evidence of freedom from PPR and SGP as well as early detection in case of possible occurrence in the Thrace regions of Bulgaria and Greece. The importance of passive surveillance component of the system is also reiterated by our results.

Click to rate this post!
[Total: 113 Average: 4.7]
Share on facebook
Share on twitter
Share on linkedin

Oumaima Mtaallah

C. Squarzoni-Diaw , S. Kalthoum, Rachid Bouguedour, F. Muñoz, A. Tran  & C. Coste †

1  CIRAD, UMR ASTRE, F-34398 Montpellier, France
2  ASTRE, Univ Montpellier, CIRAD, INRAE, Montpellier, France
3  World Organization for Animal Health(OIE) Sub-Regional Representation for North Africa, Tunis, Tunisia
4  CIRAD, UMR ASTRE, F-97490 Sainte Clotilde, La Réunion, France
5  National Center of Zoosanitary Vigilance, 33 Avenue Charles Nicolle, Tunis, Tunisia
6  CIRAD, UMR TETIS, F-97490 Sainte-Clotide, La Réunion, France.
7  TETIS, Univ-Montpellier, AgroParisTech, CNRS, INRAE, Montpelier, France.

Introduction
In this study, a spatial model was created to identify the areas that fit the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) definition integrating artificial and natural obstacles and on knowledge of national and international experts to establishment of zoning for foot and mouth disease (FMD) control at a lower cost.


Material and methods
Eight national and international experts were asked to identify the obstacles and prioritize them in order of importance, characterized by a percentage weight between 0 and 100. These obstacles were mapped and combined, taking into account their relative importance, to create a friction map that makes it possible to visualize areas where animal movements are restricted.


Results
Consulting national experts led to the definition of three zones based on their socio-economic, climatic and epidemiological context which are; zone A “Cap bon”, Zone B “The kerkennah Archipalo” and zone C ” the island of Djerba”. Only Cap Bon is a favorable zone, with good climate conditions, characterized by regular rainfall, and fertile soil. Moreover, the peninsula is connected to the rest of the country by a national road, a railway and a 40 km highway, and could consequently be controlled.

Figure 1: Friction map


Discussion
To meet the OIE recommendations, accompanying measures will be needed to insure the establishment and maintenance of the disease free status in the Cap Bon zone. A regional type approach resulting from this work could indeed be a major asset in identifying zonal regions in North Africa.

Click to rate this post!
[Total: 113 Average: 4.7]
Share on facebook
Share on twitter
Share on linkedin

Jean Claude Udahemuka

Gabriel Oluga Aboge, George Ogello Obiero, Phiyani Justice Lebea, Joshua Orungo Onono, Massimo Paone

Introduction
In Rwanda, almost all outbreaks of FMD have started in Eastern Rwanda (Ngabonziza et al., 2010). Identifying the risk factors in this area will support government control efforts.


Materials and Methods
We used a questionnaire that covered several risk factors such as vaccinating calves, mixed farms (Megersa et al., 2009), breeding system and seasonality of FMD (Bronsvoort et al., 2004). Odds ratios (CI=95%) were estimated and QGIS was used to produce thematic maps.


Results
Based on farmers’ perceptions, 85.31% (with p < 0.01) experienced more outbreaks during the major dry season. Univariate analysis revealed that mixed farming (OR = 1.501, p = 0.163), and natural breeding method (OR = 1.626; p = 0.21) were associated with the occurrence of FMD. The occurrence of FMD in the farms was found to be significantly associated with lack of vaccination of calves younger than 12 months in herds (OR = 0.707; p = 0.046).


Discussion
Failure to vaccinate calves younger than 12 months significantly increased the risks of FMD occurrence in the farms; this is consistent with previous studies (Dekker et al., 2014). Breeding methods can be responsible for the spread of FMD during outbreaks (Paton et al., 2018). However, testing and monitoring of bulls could reduce the risk (Guerin & Pozzi, 2005). We observed the AI centres used by the farmers usually screen the bulls for a range of animal infectious diseases including FMD; thereby reducing the risk of the disease transmission. The daily gathering of animals from different farms was an important trend that can be responsible for disease spread. Previous studies have also reported herd contacts at watering points as a risk of FMD (Bronsvoort et al., 2004).

Click to rate this post!
[Total: 113 Average: 4.7]
Share on facebook
Share on twitter
Share on linkedin

Paolo Motta

T. Federici, M. Mclaws, M. Henstock, A. Di Nardo, E. Chevanne, K. Van Maanen, D. King, J. Sumption

1 European Commission for the Control of Foot-and-Mouth-Disease (EuFMD), Rome, Italy
2 The Pirbright Institute, Ash Road, Pirbright, Surrey GU24 0NF, UK1

The joint FAO and OIE Global FMD Control Strategy, launched in 2012, aims to reduce the impact of FMD on animal health and production in endemic countries and decrease the risk of reintroduction into free areas. Vaccination is an important tool for FMD control; the vaccination strategy should be designed according to the control objectives and resources available, and may be targeted to the sector(s) that will benefit most from control. Many FMD-free countries maintain vaccine banks stocked with vaccine antigens protective against the viral strains believed to pose the highest risk of incursion. Thus, virological surveillance and virus characterization are key to inform appropriate and effective targeted vaccination in affected areas, and to support the development of adequate contingency plans to limit the impact and spread of FMDV in free countries or zones.

The temporal evolution of the virological surveillance in the different FMDV Pools since the establishment of the Global Strategy was reviewed using sample submission and virus characterization data from the FAO/OIE reference laboratories network. Information was extracted from the annual reports of the World Reference Laboratory for Foot-and-Mouth Disease (WRLFMD) between 2012 and 2019, and was then used to identify key gaps in sample submission and viral characterization.

The number and trends of samples submitted, serotyped and sequenced indicate that the surveillance coverage is variable. Some gaps are consistent over time, highlighting inadequate virological surveillance and virus characterization, particularly in FMD virus Pools 2 (S. Asia), 5 (W. Africa) and 6 (Southern Africa). This analysis indicates there is a need for targeted intervention to improve virological surveillance, and that further investigation is required to better characterize the types of technical, logistical, capacity hurdles currently limiting the surveillance and diagnostics capacities in these regions.

Click to rate this post!
[Total: 113 Average: 4.7]
Share on facebook
Share on twitter
Share on linkedin

P Compston

G Limon, J Onono, D King and B Häsler

1Veterinary Epidemiology and Public Health Group, Royal Veterinary College, Hawkshead Lane, AL9 7TA, UK
2The Pirbright Institute, Ash Rd, Pirbright, Woking GU24 0NF, UK
5Department of Public Health, Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Agriculture and Veterinary Sciences, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya

Introduction
Decision-making within animal healthcare systems is influenced by social, political and economic factors, which are important when developing national disease control programmes. This study aimed to describe decision-making throughout the animal healthcare system for foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) control in Kenya.


Methods
Thirteen semi-structured telephone interviews, with stakeholders engaged in FMD control activities from public and private sectors, were conducted between July and September 2020. Using an interview guide, information was gathered on their experience of FMD and its control in Kenya, their organisation’s role in FMD control, interactions with other stakeholders, how FMD vaccination programmes functioned, and perceptions of strengths and weaknesses of current FMD control. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and analysed thematically, categorising concepts within the text. Five factors of FMD disease control were selected as key relationship descriptors and mapped by stakeholder: accountability, information about disease, financial flows, vaccine flow and strategic guidance.


Results
Lines of strategic guidance, flowing from international agencies through the Kenyan government’s veterinary department to the county veterinary department, were reported as separate from accountability and financial flows, which travel between devolved county government and the county veterinary department. Informants identified this as a limitation, resulting in inconsistent prioritisation of animal disease control. Private veterinarians were described as involved in disease-reporting and vaccination, but also as separate from official lines of guidance and accountability within this publicly-governed system. Information about disease was reported as flowing mostly one-way, from farmer and primary animal healthcare providers, towards government departments and international agencies. Participants identified programmatic strengths in development of national strategic document and integration of local resources and expertise into disease control.


Discussion
Participants discussed different ways in which public-private-partnerships could strengthen FMD control. Future stakeholder consultation will use these to consolidate recommendations, integrating strategies that promote two-way accountability mechanisms and information flow about disease.

 

Click to rate this post!
[Total: 113 Average: 4.7]
Share on facebook
Share on twitter
Share on linkedin

Sena İNEL TURGUT

Pelin TUNCER-GÖKTUNA, Ünal PARLAK, Fuat ÖZYÖRÜK, Gül Nazik BALCI, Abdurrahman KURT, Sibel YAVRU

1 Foot-and-Mouth Disease (SAP) Institute, Ankara, Turkey
2 İstanbul Pendik Veterinary Control Institute, Istanbul, Turkey
3 Harran University, Veterinary Medicine, Department of Virology, Sanlıurfa, Turkey
4 Selcuk University, Veterinary Medicine, Department of Virology, Konya, Turkey

Introduction
Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) causes one of the most devastating diseases in cloven-hoofed animals. It has got seven serotypes (A, O, C, SAT1, SAT2, SAT3, and Asia-1), and they grouped in seven pools according to the geographic distributions. Turkey is in the pool three (A, O, Asia-1). The mutation rate of the FMDV is very high, and there is no cross-protection the between serotypes. Sometimes protection may not occur even among different subtypes of the same serotypes. Therefore, the evolution of FMDV must be followed closely.

 

Materials and Methods
Fifty-five isolates and the vaccine strains were examined via viral protein 1 (VP1) coding sequences. Phylogenetic relationships were examined with the minimum-evolution method by using MEGA 6.06 software. Kimura 2-parameter nucleotide substitution model and bootstrap analysis done by using 2500 replicates of the dataset.

 

Results
Two different genotypes have identified where the pairwise distance was %9. There was seven amino acid difference detected, and three of them (137,140,141) were close to the G-H loop. The first one is O/ME-SA/Panasia-1 genotype with three sub-lineages (Iran2001, α, β) (1999-2006). The second one is O/ME-SA/PanAsia-2 genotype with six sub-lineages (I(USK-06), II, TER-08, FAR-09, ANT-10, QOM-15, respectively) (2006-2020).

 

Discussion
Two genotypes belong to serotype O causes epidemics in Turkey since 1999. The O1 Manisa vaccine strain was used during the O/ME-SA/Panasia-1 genotype circulation. After the incursion of the O/ME-SA/PanAsia-2 genotype, O/TUR/07 vaccine strain was produced (2007). Nine amino acids are different between the vaccine strains, and five of them (138,139,140,141,142) are close to the G-H loop. Three of the eight changed amino acids between the first and the last subtypes of the PanAsia-2 genotype (USK-06, QOM-15) were located (133,140,141) close to the same antigenic site. Nevertheless, O/TUR/07 still matches with circulating strains and is still used as one of the prime vaccine strains in Turkey.

 

Click to rate this post!
[Total: 113 Average: 4.7]
Share on facebook
Share on twitter
Share on linkedin

Shankar Yadav

1 The European Commission for the Control of Foot-and-Mouth Disease (EuFMD), Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations,

2 University of Melbourne, Australia,

3  CSIRO Australia

Introduction:
Delayed detection of an incursion could escalate the magnitude of an epidemic and economic losses. The objective of this study was to assess the epidemiologic and economic consequences of different ‘time to detection (TTD)’ of an FMD incursion in Central Europe using the European Foot-and-Mouth Disease Spread Model (EuFMDiS).


Materials and methods:
Using the EuFMDiS, FMD spread was simulated among 316,442 livestock herds distributed in Austria, Croatia, Hungary, and Slovenia. The outbreak was initiated from a large commercial beef herd (Herd size: 121) and transmission was modelled through direct and indirect contacts, local area and airborne spread mechanism. Three separate TTD of FMD incursion (day 14, day 21, and day 28) were considered for each of the four different FMD control strategies (Stamping out of infected holdings (SO) only, SO plus ring culling in 1 km radius of infected holdings (SO_RC), SO plus suppressive vaccination in 3 km radius of infected holdings (SO_SV), and SO plus protective vaccination in 3 km to 8 km (SO_PV; 5 Km donut shape)). Altogether, twelve model scenarios were developed and simulated for 365 days.


Results:
With an increase in TTD from day 14 to day 28, the number of IH, ED, number of affected countries and total costs increased significantly (p<0.05). Among the control strategies, SO_RC had the least number of IH and shortest ED whereas SO had the largest number of IH and longest ED for all TTD scenarios. The median number of affected countries increased from 2 to 3 when the TTD was increased from day 14 to day 28. The disease control cost was highest for SO_SV strategy and lowest for SO strategy.


Discussion:
The findings demonstrate the importance of early detection along with a chosen control strategy to reduce multi-country spread of FMD

Click to rate this post!
[Total: 113 Average: 4.7]
Share on facebook
Share on twitter
Share on linkedin

S. Messori

J. Salt, S. Zientara, M. Perez-Filgueira, A. Morrow

1STAR-IDAZ International Research Consortium.

2World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), 12 rue Prony, 75017, Paris, France.

3GALVmed, Doherty Building, Pentlands Science Park, Bush Loan, Edinburgh, EH26 0PZ, UK.

4JRU Virology ANSES, INRAE, ENVA, Animal Heath laboratory, 7 avenue du Général de Gaulle, 94704 Maisons-Alfort CEDEX, France.

5INTA-CONICET, N. Repetto y De Los Reseros s/n, Hurlingham, Buenos Aires (1686), Argentina.

6Global Foot and Mouth Disease Research Alliance (GFRA),

7 Defra, Nobel House, 17 Smith Square. London SW1P 3JR, UK.

Introduction
The STAR-IDAZ International Research Consortium on Animal Health (IRC) is a global initiative aiming to coordinate research at international level to contribute developing strategies and control tools for priority animal diseases. The STAR-IDAZ IRC partners (i.e. public and private research funders) identified priority diseases needing improved focus on research, and established Working Groups (WG) of experts to perform gap analyses on these diseases, and to draft research roadmaps to providing a structure and focus on where research is most needed, identifying bottlenecks and critical gaps.
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is one of the STAR-IDAZ IRC’s priorities, and the Global FMD Research Alliance (GFRA) acts as its WG. This paper presents the drafting process for FMD research roadmaps and highlights some of the key research priorities identified in the process.


Materials and methods
Three FMD research roadmaps (i- diagnostics, ii-vaccines, and iii-disease control strategies) were drafted, based on the GFRA research gaps analyses, following a standardised procedure. Coherency and completeness of the draft roadmaps were preliminary assessed by the STAR-IDAZ IRC Scientific Committee and by GFRA experts. Then, a satellite workshop was organised after the 2019 GFRA Scientific Meeting to validated them.


Results
About 30 experts participated in the workshop, bringing a well-balanced range of specialisations and wide geographical representation. The experts validated the roadmaps and identified priority research needs for each of them, that were then published on the STAR-IDAZ IRC website.


Discussion
The whole process allowed consulting a broad range of experts, from different geographical and epidemiological settings. Overall, this participatory approach ensured the reliability of the identified needs and allowed the experts to feel ownership over the roadmaps. These roadmaps should be an extremely valuable tool to research funders and donors for developing future research calls, allowing to streamline efforts on most relevant topics, and accelerating the delivery of needed control tools.

Click to rate this post!
[Total: 113 Average: 4.7]
Share on facebook
Share on twitter
Share on linkedin

T.Aliyeva

J.Aliyev, A.Hajiyeva, M.Vatani, Ch.Suleymanova

1Azerbaijan Food Safety Institute,

2Azerbaijan Food Safety Agency, Baku, Azerbaijan Republic

Introduction
One of main components of Risk Based National Strategy for prevention and control of FMD is biannual vaccination of large (LR) and small (SR) ruminants. For estimating of effectiveness of vaccination campaigns and for the determining the real situation regarding circulation of virus in the country there is carry out serosurveillance, detecting the level of antibodies to nonstructural proteins (NSP-Ab) of FMD in susceptible animals as well as the evaluation of immunity level (SP-Ab) of vaccinated animals. This study aimed to compare of obtained results of the serosurveillance for 2016 – 2019.

 

Materials and methods
Samples were collected randomly and calculated by the WinEpi software by 95% confidence level with 4% of margin of. Totally of 1131 (LR) and 1136 (SR) serum samples in 2016, and 1323 (LR) and 1834 (SR) serum samples in 2019 were analysed in Central Veterinary Laboratory of Azerbaijan Food Safety Institute for antibodies against NSP and SP.

 

Results
For 2016 the NSP-Ab prevalence was 2.63% and 2.56% for LR and SR ruminants respectively. SP-Ab results were 88.9% (A), 81% (O), 83,8% (Asia-1) for LR and 77,6% (A), 72,3% (O) for SR. A total of 5,14% LR and 5,89% SR samples were positive for NSP-Ab in 2019. In case of SP-Ab, the prevalence was higher in SR (68,2% (A), 66,6% (O)), than in LR (64,3% (A), 62,3% (O), 59, 6% (Asia-1)).

 

Discussion
Results indicated, that NSP-ab prevalence level increased from 2016 to 2019. FMDV has circulated in country without evident clinical signs due to the annual vaccination of susceptible livestock were carried out. According to SP-Ab results in 2019, efforts should concentrate to select more effective vaccine and strengthening control measures during vaccination campaign. Local farmers’ and field veterinarians FMD awareness should be improved (booklets, posters, trainings, workshops).

Click to rate this post!
[Total: 113 Average: 4.7]
Share on facebook
Share on twitter
Share on linkedin

William J M Probert

S. Nicol, M. J Ferrari, S. Li Li, K. Shea, M. J Tildesley, M. C Runge

1 Big Data Institute, Li Ka Shing Centre for Health Information and Discovery, Nuffield Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom
2 CSIRO Land and Water, 41 Boggo Road, Dutton Park, Queensland Australia
3 Center for Infectious Disease Dynamics, Department of Biology, Eberly College of Science, The Pennsylvania State University, Pennsylvania, United States of America
4 Department of Biology and Intercollege Graduate Degree Program in Ecology, 208 Mueller Laboratory, The Pennsylvania State University, Pennsylvania, United States of America
5 State Key Laboratory of Grassland Agro-ecosystems, Center for Grassland Microbiome, and College of Pastoral, Agriculture Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, People’s Republic of China.
6 The Zeeman Institute for Systems Biology and Infectious Disease Epidemiology Research, Department of Life Sciences and Mathematics Institute, University of Warwick, Coventry, CV4 7AL, United Kingdom
7 US Geological Survey, Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, 12100 Beech Forest Rd, Laurel, Maryland, United States of America

INTRODUCTION

Mathematical modelling is often used for informing decision-making in response to FMD outbreaks. Models are increasing in abundance. When multiple models provide recommendations, it is not clear what is the best method of combining recommendations from models. Previously, this has been resolved by aggregating model projections and then presenting rankings of control interventions based upon the aggregate projections. This approach presumes model outputs are directly comparable and implies a relationship between projected outcomes across models. However, differences in the way each model represents the epidemiological system may mean outputs are not directly comparable across models.

 

MATERIALS AND METHODS

We apply electoral vote-processing rules to combine rankings of interventions generated from models. By aggregating rankings of interventions, instead of aggregating model projections, any direct comparison of projections is avoided, as all comparisons of projections are made within each model. We investigate the performance of four rules: first-past-the-post, Alternative Vote, Coombs’ method, and Borda count (a scoring system). We apply these in the context of a hypothetical foot-and-mouth disease outbreak in the United Kingdom using four stochastic individual-based models of FMD spread. Furthermore, we investigate how these vote-processing rules are influenced by the addition of models that are either biased (by only favouring one model) or random (by ranking interventions randomly).

 

RESULTS

Each vote-processing rule chose the same intervention as when ranking interventions by the expected number of livestock culled. Coomb’s method was least susceptible to adding a biased model. Including random models made no difference to the choice of best intervention until there were so many random models that the random fluctuations in preferences were greater than the original differences for the preferred intervention.

 

DISCUSSION

Aggregating rankings of interventions from multiple models avoids directly comparing projections from different models. We suggest vote processing rules as a useful additional tool when combining recommendations from multiple models.

Click to rate this post!
[Total: 113 Average: 4.7]
Share on facebook
Share on twitter
Share on linkedin

Y. Tao

W. Probert, K. Shea, K. Lafferty, M. Tildesley, M. Ferrar

1 Intelligence Community Postdoctoral Research Fellowship Program.
2 Department of Ecology, Evolution, and Marine Biology, University of California, Santa Barbara.
3 Big Data Institute, University of Oxford.
4 Department of Biology, Pennsylvania State University.
5 The Center for Infectious Disease Dynamics, Pennsylvania State University.
6 US Geological Survey.
7 Marine Science Institute, University of California, Santa Barbara.
8 The Zeeman Institute for Systems Biology and Infectious Disease Epidemiology Research, School of Life Sciences and Mathematics Institute, University of Warwick, Gibbet Hill Road, Coventry, CV4 7AL, UK.

Introduction

Achieving rapid responses to premises targeted for interventions is critical to the provision of strong biosecurity measures and the overall success of FAST management programs. However, excess response delay has been a recurrent problem in past cases of livestock epidemics when mass depopulation was put into effect. In many models, the scheduling of control actions on individual farm was nevertheless assumed to closely mirror an idealized timeframe without reflecting the disconnect between policy advice and management reality caused by common logistical constraints.

 

Materials and methods

Using survival analysis, we examined the 2001 UK Foot-and-mouth Disease Virus (FMDV) management timeline to reveal factors that impeded timely culling and disposal activities. We subsequently applied the Warwick model to evaluate how increasingly accurate model representations of the response process can influence national outbreak predictions.

 

Results

We identified farm size and number of premises in the response queue as key contributors to local response delays. Our results further suggest that simple model descriptions of outbreak management, e.g. fixed, policy-conforming responses, may grossly underestimate outbreak severity and its long-term consequences.

 

Discussion

Our results suggest the value of basing expectations of response efficiency on time-dependent, premises-specific logistical constraints. Including such operational context in management models can help improve real-time forecasts and inform decision-making.

Click to rate this post!
[Total: 113 Average: 4.7]
Share on facebook
Share on twitter
Share on linkedin

C.Hamers

V.Broks, P. Giskus, M. Alnahrawy, N.Denormandie, P.Hudelet

BI-AH – The VPH Center, 29 Avenue T. Garnier, 69007 Lyon, France.

Introduction:

Little data areavailable on how Maternally Derived Antibodies (MDAs) interfere with FMD vaccination in susceptible species and the potential interference of MDAs on FMD vaccine uptake is largely underestimated. This is particularly true when intensive FMD vaccination programs are in place for adults, resulting in high levels of MDAs in the young stock.
We report here the results of a PVM study conducted in a large dairy herd located in an endemic country.

Materials and methods:

The study was conducted in a dairy farm with “state of the art” practices. The farm is located in an FMD endemic country with high infection pressure. Adults are vaccinated 4 times per year with Aftovaxpur. Calves are fed with high quality colostrum
MDA levels were measured in 3 groups of calves before vaccination. We then compared the current vaccination to an earlier and to a later program. Comparisons were based on VNT against O-Manisa.


Results:

The average VNTs at 2.5 months of age, before any vaccination, was 1.73 Log10. Despite the care taken to colostrum administration, there was 10-fold difference (1.24 Log10-2.29 Log10) between extremes.
Among the tested vaccination programs, the one currently in place looked appropriate. There was no benefit to add an earlier vaccination. Delaying the vaccination program by a month resulted in a period with significantly lower VNTs with a risk of increased susceptibility to infection.


Discussion:

The impact of MDA on vaccine uptake is largely underestimated. MDAs are frequently seen as a homogeneous parameter that can be managed base on average antibody levels over time. This study shows that in a perfectly managed dairy herd, there can be huge differences in MDA levels. Receptivity of the calves to vaccination (and susceptibility to infection) vary accordingly. Therefore, adjusting the vaccination strategy of the calf category, so that most calves are actively immunized is critical. This is not only to protect calves from disease, but also to prevent that calves become a hotspot of dissemination for the production herd.
Similar results were obtained in other large dairy herds. Such herds have some specificities, among which “optimal colostrum distribution”. Heterogeneity of the colostrum antibody levels would be even higher in beef cattle, resulting in a higher disparity of FMD vaccine uptake.

Click to rate this post!
[Total: 113 Average: 4.7]
Share on facebook
Share on twitter
Share on linkedin

 

C. Alvarez

Valérie Frances-Duvert, Elodie Hanotel, François Enchery, Anna Oosterbaan1, Judith Hills,Ophélie Lemasson, Michele Schneider, Lydie Rémolue.

Boehringer-Ingelheim Animal Health, Lyon FRANCE.
1.Boehringer Ingelheim Animal Health Netherlands BV, Lelystad,Netherlands.
2 Boehringer Ingelheim Animal Health, Pirbright, United Kingdom

-Introduction
Currently, antibodies to Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus (“ FMDV”) FMDV are detected in animals using the virus neutralization test (VNT). While VNT is recognized as correlated to protection, the method is laborious, time consuming and reliant on live virus and cell cultures. Due to these constraints, alternative methods are being investigated by different labs. We have chosen an approach using VHH specific of 146S particles (or nanobodies) to set up a blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) for the detection of specific antibodies against O1 Manisa and Asia 1 Shamir in swine and cattle sera.

-Materials and methods
First, dilutions of serum are mixed with a defined quantity of FMD antigen (concentrated and inactivated) and then added on a plate coated with FMDV serotype specific VHH. The non-binded antigen present in the mix is captured by the coated VHH, and detected by a homologous biotinylated-VHH. Titer of 146S specific antibodies is expressed as log10 OD50.

-Results
Preliminary results with O1 Manisa showed low variability (standard deviation below 0.1). Serotype specificity was also confirmed. Using 1500 sera from pigs and cattle vaccinated with either a monovalent or a multivalent vaccine (AFTOPOR®, AFTOVAXPUR® or experimental vaccines), we demonstrated a good correlation of the ELISA titers with the VNT titers.

-Discussion
ELISA provides more reproducible results compared to VNT and has the advantage to be performed in non –BSL3 environment. Next step will be to confirm those results on other serotypes. In conclusion, the developed serological blocking ELISAs, using serotype specific VHH targeting 146S FMDV particles, can be considered, based on these studies, as an interesting alternative to VNT to evaluate vaccine immunogenicity and performance.

Click to rate this post!
[Total: 113 Average: 4.7]
Share on facebook
Share on twitter
Share on linkedin

 

A. Capozzo

Florencia Mansilla, Juan Sala, Cecilia Turco, María de los Ángeles Lavoria, Mariano Pérez-Filgueira.

1Institute of Virology and Technical Innovations. INTA- CONICET. Buenos Aires, Argentina. 2 Experimental Station INTA- Mercedes Corrientes, Argentina. 3Independent professional. * Presenting author

Introduction
We recently demonstrated that indirect ELISAs using whole 146S-viral particles (146S-ELISAs) detect antibodies against exposed epitopes, arising as a better alternative to the virus neutralization test (VNT) than currently-used Liquid-Phase Blocking ELISA (LBPE). Here we evaluated the application of 146S-ELISAs that measure IgG-subtypes and avidity (Avidity-ELISA, “AE”) of vaccine-induced antibodies as surrogates of the VNT in pigs, buffaloes, and cattle.


Methods
The study included 530 serum samples from primo and re-vaccinated buffaloes, 58 from primo-vaccinated pigs (immunized with a commercial tetravalent vaccine), and 108 from primo-vaccinated cattle (monovalent vaccines) which were challenged with the vaccine virus. VNT was considered the gold-standard for in vitro assays. Pairwise-level of agreement between ELISAs and VNT results were computed by Pearson´s correlation and linear regression analyses. Concordance was assessed by Kappa value (Κ).


Results
Buffalo samples yielded moderate concordance between VNT and LPBE (K=0.56), with low specificity (48%) and good sensitivity (85%). Concordance was higher for AE (K=0.76), yielding excellent specificity (93.8%) and sensitivity (90%). In pigs, concordance with VNT was moderate (K=0.61) for LPBE and excellent for AE (K=0.93). IgG1 and IgG2 ELISAs correlated with the VNT (Pearson’s-R=0,93 and 0,84, respectively). Finally, LPBE and VNT titers had a moderate concordance (K=0.66) in cattle, similar sensitivity (93%) but lower specificity (71%); while AE yielded high sensitivity (83%) and specificity (100%). Using the current cut-off values (EPP75), concordance with challenge outcome was moderate for VNT (K=0.6) and low for LBPE (K=0,42). Sensitivity was similar (82-83%) for both assays and specificity was lower for LPBE (78%).


Conclusions
Avidity-ELISA can replace VNT for all three species, while using other assay that do not restrict the binding of antibodies against exposed epitopes is not recommended. Indirect prediction of protection using serology may require combining at least two assays as they can bring complementary information regarding the induced antibody response.

Click to rate this post!
[Total: 113 Average: 4.7]
Share on facebook
Share on twitter
Share on linkedin

C.Turco

Florencia Mansilla, María Cruz Miraglia and Alejandra Capozzo

Institute of Virology and Technical Innovations. INTA- CONICET. Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Introduction
Foot-and-Mouth disease virus (FMDV) vaccines are required not to produce antibodies against viral non-structural proteins (usually 3ABC) aimed to enable the discrimination between infected and vaccinated animals. This requirement is currently assessed by vaccinating cattle, following an expensive, time-consuming protocol. Alternative in-vitro assays have been developed to quantify 3ABC in antigen preparations before formulation but not in ready-to-use vaccines. In this study, we assessed the feasibility of detecting NCP in oil-adjuvant vaccines using a commercial FAL-ELISA.


Methods
An aqueous-phase vaccine antigen batch “VAB” free of 3ABC (100X concentrated, FMDV A/Arg/01 strain) was provided by a local manufacturer. This VAB was diluted in PBS 1X, aliquoted in different fractions and spiked with 0, 50 and 10 ng of recombinant 3ABC per +vaccine dose and formulated with an oil adjuvant (W/O emulsion). A protein-extraction protocol was set up using the formulated vaccines. The extracted fraction was tested in a western-blot and in the PrioCHECK®FMD IPC-3ABC kit (FAL-ELISA) following the manufacturer’s instructions.


Results
The analytical sensitivity was evaluated by extracting the aqueous phase of 3ABC-spiked oil vaccines. We verified that oil-adjuvanted vaccines should be processed by adding to 1 volume of the vaccine dose, 1 volume of PBS and 2 vol of chloroform and mixed for at least 4h at 4ºC. Longer incubation times did not increase the recovery of 3ABC. Under optimized conditions, vaccines that yielded a positive result had at least 10ng of 3ABC/ml estimated by the FAL-ELISA.


Conclusion
FAL-ELISA can be used for the detection of FMDV non-structural proteins in formulated vaccines. FAL-ELISA is a promising candidate for replacing the use of animals for the control of FMD-vaccine purity, that can be particularly useful for vaccine banks and regulatory bodies.

Click to rate this post!
[Total: 113 Average: 4.7]
Share on facebook
Share on twitter
Share on linkedin

 

F. Mansilla

Juan Sala, Cecilia Turco and Alejandra Capozzo

1Experimental Station INTA-Mercedes, Corrientes, Argentina. 2Institute of Virology and Technical Innovations. INTA- CONICET. Buenos Aires, Argentina. *

Introduction
Post-vaccination sero-monitoring of protective antibody levels in buffaloes entails the use of the Liquid-phase blocking ELISA (LPBE) that measures antibodies against structural viral proteins. We have developed an alternative assay, a single-dilution avidity ELISA (AE) aimed to detect high-binders to purified 140S-particles, which proved to be more specific than LPBE. Here we analyzed the kinetics of the antibodies induced by a single vaccination in two different buffalo herds (n=91 animals) for 120 days using the virus neutralization test (VNT), AE and LPBE.


Methods
Buffaloes from two farms (“A” and “B”) located in Corrientes province, Argentina, were immunized as part of the national FMD-vaccination program using a tetravalent oil-adjuvanted commercial vaccine. Adult animals were re-vaccinated (A: n=25-; B: n=33) and calves (with or without maternal antibodies, “MatAbs”) were primo-vaccinated (A: n=18-; B: n=15). Kinetics of humoral responses against two of the vaccine strains were assessed with individual serum samples at 0, 7, 14, 21, 30, 60, 90- and 120-days post-vaccination (dpv). Concordance between VNT and the ELISAs was assessed using Kappa value, considering the protection cut-off value for each assay and stran (n=530 samples).


Results.
The kinetics of antibodies were similar for both strains in the different assays considering all the categories in a single group, with an increase from 0 to 14 dpv, and remained within similar levels from thereon. Interestingly, VNT and AE detected a decay in the antibody response in calves with MatAbs, that was significantly different from day 0 at 90 and 120 dpv. We found a considerable concordance between AE and VNT, (Kappa value=0.76) while only a moderate concordance was found with LPBE (0.56).


Conclusion
Avidity of antibodies can be measured using a simple single-dilution ELISA, yielding similar results than the VNT. AE might replace VNT for vaccine-immunity monitoring.

Click to rate this post!
[Total: 113 Average: 4.7]
Share on facebook
Share on twitter
Share on linkedin

Miftahul Islam Barbaruah

Vet Helpline India Pvt Ltd, H.No.31/32 Milanpur, Chandmari, Guwahati-781021, Assam, India

Introduction

The State of Assam, with 31.2 million people (2011), is the Gateway State of the strategically important North Eastern Region of India. The North Eastern Region of India shares 98 percent of its regional border with international neighbors such as China, Myanmar, Bhutan, and Bangladesh. As per the 20th Livestock census (2019), Assam’s cattle and pig population is 10.9 million and 2.1 million, respectively. Assam’s pig population is the highest among all the States of India.

The Government of India has notified the outbreak of African Swine Fever (ASF) in Assam on 19th May 2020. The event started during the latter part of January 2020 and is continuing. The state also reported a simultaneous outbreak of Lumpy Skin Disease (LSD) in cattle. 

The management of ASF and LSD was a challenge, as the state had to prioritize control of the COVID situation and handle situations arising out of natural disasters like floods. 

The paper is rapid documentation of learning related to animal disease emergency management in Assam, as observed by the author. 

Documented learning:

The paper documented key learning such as the (1) need for targeted communication of the big picture associated with an animal disease outbreak, (2) the importance of the capacity building of Veterinary Services to convert data to knowledge for informed decisions, (3) the need for decentralization of decision making for fast containment of disease, (4) Need for multistakeholder ( e.g., Veterinary Service, civil society, Journalist, etc.) capacity building on disease communication, (5) the need for improved engagement of Veterinary Service with Civil authority and established mechanism for inter-departmental collaboration for the implementation of containment measures, (6) importance of scenario-based disease management protocol design and investment for ground awareness of the same, (7) Increase empowerment of laboratories to handle logistic network, samples, diagnostics, and perform the required test, (8) A multidisciplinary response team makes a difference, (9) GIS/RS based decision support system and citizen reporting can help in efficient outbreak response, (10 ) Appropriate framing of rules and their enforcement is vital as Act alone for control of animal diseases is not sufficient.

ing=”no” frameborder=”no” allow=”autoplay” src=”https://w.soundcloud.com/player/?url=https%3A//api.soundcloud.com/tracks/935782825%3Fsecret_token%3Ds-97nwFZziWLR&color=%23ff5500&auto_play=false&hide_related=false&show_comments=true&show_user=true&show_reposts=false&show_teaser=true&visual=true”>
Click to rate this post!
[Total: 113 Average: 4.7]
Share on facebook
Share on twitter
Share on linkedin

C. Croton

M. Wilson, L. Wilson, N. Lyons, S. Thomson

1Novus Res, 200 Pulteney St, Adelaide, SA, Australia
2FAO European Commission for the Control of Food-and-Mouth Disease
3 Epidemiology and One Health Section, Australian Government Department of Agriculture Water and the Environment, 18 Marcus Clarke St, Canberra, ACT, Australia

Introduction

Training is one of the strongest areas of growth in the Virtual Reality (VR) industry. Standalone headsets such as the Oculus Quest are declining cost in cost and increasing in capability. This means that headsets can now be distributed to train users on a large scale. A pilot VR experience was developed to determine how it could be used to train animal disease preparedness.


Materials and methods

Novus Res developed the VR application using the Unity game engine to operate on the Oculus Quest. The content was based on EuFMD training courses. The Quest was chosen because it is a standalone system with full head and hand tracking, making it ideal for training.

Results

Users walk around and use their hands to perform a training tasks while on a virtual representation of a farm. The modules covered in the demonstration application include establishing biosecurity control points, examination of livestock, taking laboratory samples from livestock, and interviewing landowners.

 

Discussion

The pilot demonstration will be trialled from November 2020 with a group of users. Feedback on the demonstration will be collected. This feedback includes information on how effective the user felt the technology was in improving their knowledge and possible improvements that could be made for future experiences.

Feedback on the pilot will help guide the development of further VR training experiences. Additionally, a report is near publication that examines in more detail the use of VR to support FMD preparedness training.

Click to rate this post!
[Total: 113 Average: 4.7]
Share on facebook
Share on twitter
Share on linkedin

Sung-han Park

Dong-Wan Kim a, Jong-Hyeon Park


Center for Foot-and-Mouth Disease Vaccine Research, Animal and Plant Quarantine Agency, 177, Hyeoksin 8-ro, Gimcheon City, Gyeongsangbuk-do Province, 39660, Republic of Korea

Introduction
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious disease that causes serious economic losses in terms of animal products as well as controlling disease prevention. In Korea, the outbreak of FMD in 2010 caused great damage to the livestock industry. Due to these FMD circumstances, the FMD vaccine used to control a large scale outbreak in FMD endemic or sporadic countries. Since 2010, vaccination against FMD has been carried out nationwide. In addition, the importance of new conceptual polyvalent vaccine development for the prevention of virus transmission in the early infection stage was recognized from the outbreaks of both O and A serotypes that simultaneously occurred in 2017-2019.

Materials and methods
In this study, we compared with experimental intradermal (ID) vaccine and the intramuscular (IM) vaccines used in Korea for the early protection from FMD. And we investigated the prevention and specific antibody after ID or IM vaccination. Also, we challenged the pigs with type A virus isolated in Korea, 2018 after 3-week immunization.

Results
Through serological analysis, changes in two antibodies, IgG and IgE, were confirmed, and changes in TNF-α and IL-4 have also confirmed changes in the cytokines. as a result of IL-4, it was found that the ID vaccine may also help provide early protection from FMD. Also, the swine protection in early stage 3 weeks after vaccination with the ID vaccine was confirmed by a challenge of A/GP/SKR/2018 isolated in Korea, 2018.

Discussion
We concluded that the ID vaccine can also provide early protection against the recent FMD virus, and that ID vaccination has the advantages of being efficient.

Click to rate this post!
[Total: 113 Average: 4.7]
Share on facebook
Share on twitter
Share on linkedin

A. Shaw

 Alison Burman, Amin Asfor, Donald King

The Pirbright Institute, Ash Road, Pirbright, Surrey, GU24 0NF, UK

Introduction
Active monitoring and understanding the epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) form the foundations of control programmes in endemic areas. In many endemic areas, veterinary resources are limited, resulting in a requirement for simple sampling techniques in order to increase and supplement surveillance efforts. Environmental sampling provides such a method and requires little prior knowledge of the disease or experience of handling livestock. This study investigates the feasibility of using environmental sampling at livestock markets in an FMDV endemic setting.


Materials and methods
Environmental swab sampling methods developed for the detection of FMDV were used at cattle markets and abattoirs from six locations across Cameroon. A total of 1994 samples were collected. Testing for the presence of FMDV RNA was carried out at the Pirbright Institute (UK) using a panserotype specific rRT-PCR assay. Sequencing approaches were also used to assess suitability of samples for generating sequence data.


Results
8% (n=173) of samples were positive, with the majority of positive samples from two of the sampling locations (Douala, n=86/332 and Bertoua n=79/332). Sequencing of a relatively high titre sample using a probe enrichment approach resulted in the generation of sequence data, which allowed the sample to be identified as serotype O, EA-3 lineage.


Discussion
Environmental sampling provides a simple method for the detection of FMDV that avoids handling of livestock. Sampling at markets and abattoirs that are hubs for livestock movements presents an opportunity for broad-scale surveillance of livestock diseases, not just limited to FMDV. Environmental sampling could supplement surveillance of other diseases that are also the subject of eradication programmes, such as Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV). Sequencing environmental samples presents difficulties due to the low viral content of samples and poor quality of RNA. Developing sequencing protocols that overcome these issues could provide valuable information for surveillance programmes.

Click to rate this post!
[Total: 113 Average: 4.7]
Share on facebook
Share on twitter
Share on linkedin

Y. Han

JiHyun Lee, Hyun Mi Pyo1, EunJin Choi, WonSeok Shin, DoHeon Gwon, JaeMyoung Kim, Mi-Young Park


1Foot and Mouth Disease Division, Animal and Plant Quarantine Agency, Gimcheon, Gyeongsang buk-Do, Republic of Korea

 

Introduction

Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) has been mainly controlled by prophylactic vaccination and sero-surveillance after vaccination in Korea. Serological tests for detection of antibodies against virus structural proteins(SPs) are suited to determine protective antibody responses induced by vaccination. The Virus Neutralization Test (VNT) is recognized as the golden standard method for detecting SP antibodies to FMDV. However it is not appropriate for massive serological test because it requires live virus, laborious procedure, time-consuming and training and experience to produce reproducible results. Therefore a recombinant-protein based ELISA has been developed for the detection of antibodies to FMDV type A and has been validated using an wide range of sera from cattle and pigs.

 

Materials and methods

The recombinant protein (rP13C) was derived form the P1 precursor and 3C protease genes using a baculovirus-expressed system, The competitor monoclonal antibody (Mab) for the ELISA was generated by immunizing a VP1 peptide corresponding to the GH loop for high correlation of FMDV neutralizing antibodies. When test sera at a 1:4 dilution with a cut-off point of 50% inhibition of reaction, the performance of solid-phase competition ELISA showed the highest concordance rate with that of VNT for serum panel obtained from infected or vaccinated animals. SPCE assay had lower limit of detection than the virus neutralisation test. The specificity of the solid-phase ELISA was considerably higher than that of the liquid-phase blocking ELISA and almost equivalent to that of the virus neutralization test. The assay thus retains the sensitivity of the liquid-phase blocking ELISA whilst being easier to use, more robust and specific, and therefore offers an improvement for FMD virus antibody detection.

 

Results

Thus, this SPCE is an alternative method for post-immunization detection of antibodies against FMDV serotype A, with high specificity and sensitivity.

 

Discussion

The use of VLPs in the SPCE assay as a replacement for inactivated FMDV provides a high level of biosafety. The SPCE showed high concordance rates when compared with the virus neutralization test and liquid-phase blocking ELISA for testing clinical serum samples and successive serological monitoring (kappa = 0.925). Thus, this SPCE is an alternative method for post-immunization detection of antibodies against FMDV serotype A, with high specificity and sensitivity.

Click to rate this post!
[Total: 113 Average: 4.7]
Share on facebook
Share on twitter
Share on linkedin

 

 

L. Comtet

; Carpentier, Alix ; Roche, Mickaël ; Donnet, Fabien ; Greatrex, Anna ; Pourquier, Philippe


1 IDvet, 310 rue Louis Pasteur, GRABELS, France.

 

FMD significantly limits trade in animals and animal products; FMD-free countries invest important resources to prevent and prepare for possible incursions. If vaccine banks enable rapid implementation of emergency vaccination, availability of diagnostics is also crucial, either to monitor virus spread with non-structural protein (NSP) or capsid structural protein (SP)-based tests, or to perform post-vaccination monitoring with SP ELISAs.

 

In a context of an emergency outbreak management in non-vaccinated areas, SP serology may be preferred, implying the use of Solid Phase Blocking ELISAs (SPBE) ELISAs related to the serotype causing the outbreak. Even though many research is being done to predict the patterns of viral emergence, the risk of an unexpected serotype cannot be excluded.

 

In this context, appropriate SP diagnostic kit availability could be an issue: diagnostic banks preparation may be complicated and costly, and inappropriate SP kit stocks could make it ineffective. A SP-panserotype SPBE could potentially solve these problems.

 

Different SP-panserotype SPBE prototypes were developed, using different panserotype monoclonal antibodies as conjugate. For the best one, the specificity was evaluated by the analysis of 80 cattle and 80 swine samples from a non-endemic and unvaccinated area. Measured specificity: 99,4% (IC95% [96,6 – 99,9].

 

Inclusivity was assessed by testing sera from infected cattle (IAEA), including sera against the 6 FMDV serotypes (A, O, Asia 1, SAT 1, SAT 2 and SAT 3). All samples were found positive, showing the capacity of the test to detect SP antibodies, regardless of the infective FMD serotype.

 

Analytical sensitivity was assessed by comparing the last positive dilution for 21 samples with the homologous ID Screen® SP-SPBE. Results indicated comparable analytical sensitivity, regardless of the serotype tested.

 

Preliminary results indicate the possible use of a panserotype SPBE kit for the specific detection of SP antibodies, regardless of the infective FMDV serotype.

Click to rate this post!
[Total: 113 Average: 4.7]
Share on facebook
Share on twitter
Share on linkedin

Doheon Kwon

YouJin Han, JiHyun Lee, Hyun Mi Pyo, Eun-Jin Choi, Wonseok Shin, JaeMyoung Kim and Mi-Young Park


1 Foot and Mouth Disease Diagnostic Division, Animal and Plant Quarantine Agency, 177, Hyeoksin 8-ro, Gimcheon-si, Gyeongsangbuk-do, Republic of Korea

Introduction
Three Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD) vaccines containing various serotypes and strains are routinely used under national vaccination programs in Korea. Furthermore, three commercial ELISA kits have been licensed for detection of antibodies against structural proteins (SP) of FMDV to estimate vaccine-induced immunity. These included PrioCHECK SP Type-O ELISA, accredited internationally and two domestic Solid-phase competitive ELISA kits coated with recombinant-protein based antigens. Since these various factors were involved, variability in serological test results owing to differences in the antigenic specificity of tests according to the particular virus strains and antibody reagents utilized in the tests may affect the reliability of serological result. Therefore, we investigated diagnostic performances of the three ELISAs used for sero-surveillance to identify appropriate test reagent for the relevant vaccine or field strains.

Materials and methods
PrioCHECK (Thermofisher-PrioCHECK SP-type O) and two ELISA kits (Median-VDPro FMDV Type-O Ab b-ELISA, BIONOTE FMD Type-O Ab ELISA) developed in Korea were used. They were evaluated using 684 sera collected from pigs and cattle vaccinated with three FMD vaccines containing either O1-manisa+O3039+A22-Iraq, O1-primorskiy+A-Zabaikalskiy or O1-Campos+A24-Cruzeiro+A2000Argentine and 214 sera from unvaccinated pigs experimentally infected with FMDV O/SKR/BE/2017 and O/SKR/AS/2019. Antibody titers were determined with the virus neutralization tests (VNT) as a reference criteria.


Results
Based on the tests of sequential sera from experimentally infected pigs, seroconversion occurred between 5 and 8 days post-infection (DPI) in three ELISA kits, similar to that (4~5 DPI) observed using the VNT. When applied to samples in vaccinated groups, all of three ELISA kits identified more positives than the VNT did and the two domestic kits yielded higher seropositivity than PrioCHECK kit did.


Discussion
When compared to the VNT, the results of this study suggested that the sensitivity of three ELISA kits are less affected by the specificity of virus strain used in the test. In addition, the result of higher seropositivity than the PrioCHECK kit for domestic kits reflects that various vaccines in use and field strains from outbreaks in Korea were considered in development of ELISA kits.

Click to rate this post!
[Total: 113 Average: 4.7]
Share on facebook
Share on twitter
Share on linkedin

Mi-Young Park

YuJin Han, JiHyun Lee, Hyun Mi Pyo, EunJin Choi, WonSeok Shin, DoHeon Gwon, Jae Myung Kim

1 Foot and Mouth Disease Diagnostic Division, Animal and Plant Quarantine Agency, Gimcheon, Gyeongsang buk-Do, Republic of Korea

The ideal vaccine for the control and prevention of Foot-and-Mouth-Disease (FMD) should be able to induce broader protection and longer duration of immunity. Particularly, it is the important feature for the effectiveness of a vaccine to estimate the duration of immunity when the vaccines licensed for regular use are performed in field trials. In this study, the FMD antibody response profiles in cattle and pigs were observed for a certain period following the boosting vaccination in accordance with the recommended schedules.  

 

Three FMD vaccines approved for routine use in cattle and pigs were used. They are bivalent or trivalent formulations containing either O1-manisa+O3039+A22-Iraq(Merial Animal Health Ltd.), O1-primorskiy+A-Zabaikalskiy(FGBI ARRIAH, Russia) as double oil(W/O/W) emulsions or O1-Campos+A24-Cruzeiro+A2000Argentine (Biogenesis Bago SA) as water in oil(W/O) emulsions. Each vaccine was respectively administered to 5 cattle and 104 pigs following vaccination schedules. Serum samples were collected regularly for up to 28 weeks(cattle) and 14 weeks(pigs) post-vaccination. Antibody titers were measured by virus neutralization test.

 

For both of animals, the antibody titers increased following primo-vaccination and remained stable or tend to increase after the administration of second dose. However, antibody responses for the vaccine containing O1-manisa+O3039+A22-Iraq demonstrated a gradual decrease from peak antibody titers which leveled off after 2 weeks for most pigs. Nevertheless, all vaccines generated a sufficient antibody response(VNT, ≥1.5 log10) in most cattle and pigs for the duration of the trial.  

 

Recently revised vaccination program in Korea has proposed secondary administration for pigs to maintain protective levels of immunity up to 24 weeks age, which are typically slaughtered in fattening pigs. It is also suggested that in case of ruminants, further revaccinations at approximately 6 months intervals after the initial course is required to last high levels of antibodies. This study demonstrated the three routine vaccines adopted by the Korean-Expert-Committee for FMD vaccines confer enough long-term immunity for protective capability against FMDV when properly applied for the recommended vaccination regimes.

 

Click to rate this post!
[Total: 113 Average: 4.7]
Share on facebook
Share on twitter
Share on linkedin

S. Heon Lee

J. Choi, S. Jung, E-S. Yoo, S. Lee, H-H. Kim , J-H. Park , and J. Kim

1 Center for FMD Vaccine Research, Animal and Plant Quarantine Agency, Gimcheon, Republic of Korea.

Introduction
A liquid-phase blocking ELISA (LPBE) has been standardized to be used for serological assessment of herd immunity against foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) because this assay is a relatively simple procedure and cost-effective compared to virus-neutralization test (VNT). In this study, we developed LPBE to measure the level of antibodies against FMDV A/Yeoncheon/SKR/2017 (A/Asia/Sea-97/G2 lineage) and validate its efficacy using an extensive range of sera obtained from pigs.


Materials and methods
The 146S particles of the inactivated FMDV A Yeoncheon (A-YC) were purified by sucrose gradient ultra-centrifugation and then used for an ELISA antigen. Two polyclonal hyperimmune sera against A-YC, one for capture (rabbit), and the other for the detector (guinea pig) were prepared and optimized for ELISA reaction. After optimization of the reaction, the developed LPBE was applied to the quantitative estimation of antibodies titers against A-YC from using the field-collected pig sera.


Results
To evaluate the diagnostic performance of the developed LPBE, a total of 133 sera from pigs vaccinated with serotype A monovalent vaccine (experimental vaccine incorporated FMDV A-YC) were screened in parallel by the VNT. When test sera at a 1:10 dilution with a cut-off point of 50% inhibition of reaction, LPBE exhibited the best performance with high diagnostic sensitivity (92.1%) and specificity (88.6%) in comparison with the VNT. The developed LPBE has a correlation with the VNT (r2 = 0.7247).


Discussion
The LPBE developed in this study is a suitable diagnostic tool for the rapid detection of antibody raised against FMDV A/Asia/Sea-97/G2 lineage.

Click to rate this post!
[Total: 113 Average: 4.7]
Share on facebook
Share on twitter
Share on linkedin

S. Heon Lee

S. Jung, J. Choi, E-S. Yoo, S. Lee, H-H. Kim , J-H. Park , and J. Kim

1  Center for FMD Vaccine Research, Animal and Plant Quarantine Agency, Gimcheon, Republic of Korea.

Introduction
While the presence of neutralizing antibodies is generally used as a measurement of the immune response to foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) vaccination, a threshold level of neutralizing antibody titer (VNT) associated with possible protection is uncertain in pigs. This study aimed to determine whether the levels of VNTs following vaccination were able to predict levels of protection against FMD virus (FMDV) infection in the field.


Materials and methods
To collect datasets for analysis of the correlation between the VNTs of vaccinated animals and protection, an in vivo challenge study was conducted. 48 fattening pigs were challenged with FMDV A Sea-97/G2 lineage after vaccination with vaccine incorporated FMDV A Sea-97/G1 lineage. The relationship between protection ratio and VNTs was statistically established by logistic regression analysis. The expected percentage of protection for the vaccine was calculated with logistic regression using datasets from in vivo challenge study.


Results
The mean VNTs at 0-3 days post-challenge showed a much better correlation with the percentage of protected animals as compared to that of VNTs at 21- and 28-days post-vaccination. In a statistical analysis, it was evident that log10 VNT of 0.94 was associated with >80% of protection against infection with FMDV A Sea-97/G1 lineage.


Discussion
In the case of FMDV A Sea-97/G2 lineage, the antibody titers in vaccinated pigs upon early challenge were indicative of the level of protection. However, further studies are necessary to secure more serological data to set the criterion for predicting the protection of FMD based on the level of VNTs.

Click to rate this post!
[Total: 113 Average: 4.7]
Share on facebook
Share on twitter
Share on linkedin

S. Heon Lee

S. Jung, J. Choi, S. Lee, H-H. Kim , J-H. Park , and J. Kim

1  Center for FMD Vaccine Research, Animal and Plant Quarantine Agency, Gimcheon, Republic of Korea.

Introduction
To determine the suitability of a foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) vaccine, the antigenic cross-reactivity between vaccine and field strains is usually assessed by in vitro serological test. In this study, the antigenic cross-reactivity of field viruses circulating in Southern East Asia (SEA) was measured by in vitro vaccine matching test using various sets of bovine post-vaccinal sera.


Materials and methods
The in vitro vaccine matching test by 2D VNT was conducted according to OIE Manual. The assay used four commercial vaccine strains (O1/Manisa, O/3039, O/Primorsky, and O1/Campos) and one experimental vaccine strains (O/BE). Bovine post-vaccinal sera raised against each vaccine strain were also used. Field strains were O/ME-SA/PanAsia lineage of FMDV that were isolated from clinical specimens collected in SEA during 2016-2018.


Results
All the field viruses exhibited strong cross-reactivity (high r1- value) with O1/Manisa and O/BE (O/ME-SA/Ind-2001d lineage originated from Korea) antisera indicating that these vaccine strains were a good match for the FMDV O/ME-SA/PanAsia strains currently circulating in SEA. Unlike the O1/Manisa and O/BE, the field viruses reacted were not well with O/Primorsky and O1/Campos antisera. In case of O/3039, only one Vietnam field isolate exhibited an r1-value less than an acceptable threshold of 0.3. 


Discussion
The O1/Manisa, O/3039 and O/BE vaccine strain seem to be a good match with the circulating FMDV O/ME-SA/PanAsia lineage in SEA. This indicates that the vaccines containing these three strains could be the priority vaccines against possible future outbreak caused by the FMDV O/ME-SA/PanAsia lineage.

 

Click to rate this post!
[Total: 113 Average: 4.7]
Share on facebook
Share on twitter
Share on linkedin

S. Heon Lee

S. Jung, J. Choi, S. Lee, H-H. Kim , J-H. Park , and J. Kim

1  Center for FMD Vaccine Research, Animal and Plant Quarantine Agency, Gimcheon, Republic of Korea.

Introduction
After the implementation of nationwide mandatory vaccinations in 2011 in the Republic of Korea, several commercial foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) vaccines were tested to determine a proper vaccine strain for the usage of a prophylactic measure. The commercial O SKR (O SKR7/10) vaccine originated from FMD virus O/SEA/Mya-98 lineages that occurred in Korea 2010 was one of the vaccines. In the present study, the O SKR vaccine was tested for the evaluation of its protective efficacy and serological performance in pigs.

Materials and methods
The O SKR vaccine efficacy was assessed by the post-vaccination challenge study in 8 weeks old specific pathogen-free (SPF) pigs. In the field trials, the serological performance of the vaccine was evaluated.


Results
Our results demonstrated that the O SKR vaccine can confer complete protection in SPF pigs against homologous challenge during the experiment period. The serologic test results indicated that the vaccine developed vigorous antibody responses at 7 days post-vaccination (dpv). On the other hand, in the field trial, the O SKR vaccine did not elicit a satisfactory immunity in the vaccinated pig; a rapid decrease of antibody level in pig after the first vaccination. This result may be due to the inhibitory antibody response caused by the pre-existing FMD antibody level (SP-antibody level at 0 dpv) from the maternal transmission.


Discussions
Taken together our results, it can be concluded that the immunogenicity of O SKR vaccine seems to be somewhat lacking for the field because it does not overcome the interference effect of maternally derived FMD antibodies.

Click to rate this post!
[Total: 113 Average: 4.7]
Share on facebook
Share on twitter
Share on linkedin

S. Heon Lee

J. Choi, S. Jung, S. Lee, H-H. Kim, J-H. Park, and J. Kim

1 Center for FMD Vaccine Research, Animal and Plant Quarantine Agency, Gimcheon, Republic of Korea.

Introduction
In Korea, three commercial FMD vaccines (A: O/Manisa+O/3039+A22, B: O/Primorsky+A/Zabaikalsky, C: O/Campos+A/Argentina2001+A24 vaccine) containing different FMD virus strains were allowed for routine vaccination. In field, there has been a claim that heterologous booster vaccination could hamper the proper immune response which should be elicited by homologous booster vaccination, 2-shot vaccination with the same vaccine in pigs. In this study, the serological cross-reactivity induced by heterologous- and homologous-booster-vaccination was analyzed by virus-neutralizing test (VNT) using vaccine strains.

Materials and methods
One hundred ninety-eight pigs were randomly divided into nine groups, which constitute six heterologous-booster-vaccinated groups (A+B, A+C, B+A, B+C, C+A, and C+B vaccinated groups, according to the sequence of applied vaccines) and three homologous-booster-vaccinated groups (A+A, B+B, and C+C). After vaccinated at 8 and 12 weeks old with designated vaccines, VNT against the vaccine strains were performed until 24 weeks old.

Results
Any interference induced by the booster vaccine was not observed in six heterologous-vaccinated-groups. The immune response against the vaccine strains induced by booster vaccination in heterologous-booster-vaccinated groups seemed to be equal or more than homologous-booster-vaccinated groups at 24 weeks of age. Furthermore, the increasing tendency of the cross-reactivity against other vaccine strains not contained in both primary and booster vaccines was more often observed in heterologous-booster-vaccinated groups than in the homologous-vaccinated groups.


Discussion
As the results of this study, it could be concluded that the heterologous booster FMD vaccination could induce the proper immune response and could be used as the strategic method preventing against a broader spectrum of field FMD viruses.

Click to rate this post!
[Total: 113 Average: 4.7]
Share on facebook
Share on twitter
Share on linkedin

E. A. Foglia

T. Chaligava, S. Kharatyan, G. Pezzoni, S. Grazioli1, C. Pötzsch, F. Rosso, E. Brocchi

1  Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Lombardia e dell’Emilia Romagna (IZSLER), Brescia, Italy;
2 European Commission for the control of Foot-and-Mouth Disease (EuFMD), FAO, Rome, Italy;
3 National Food Agency (NFA) of the Ministry of Environmental protection and Agriculture (MEPA), Tbilisi, Georgia;
4  Scientific Center for Risks Assessment and Analysis in Food Safety Area CJCS, Yerevan, Armenia

Introduction
In countries endemic for Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), routine or emergency vaccinations are strategic tools to control infection; according to OIE/FAO guidelines, a prior estimation of vaccine effectiveness is recommendable to optimize control programs. This study reports the results of small-scale vaccination trials performed in Transcaucasus region.

 

Materials and Methods
Polyvalent vaccines including serotypes O, A (two topotypes) and Asia1 from two different manufacturers were evaluated in Georgia and Armenia. Naïve large and small ruminants (20 each) were vaccinated once and a sub-group received a second dose 90 Days-Post-Vaccination (DPV). Antibody (Ab) titres were determined through Virus Neutralization test versus homologous strains in sera collected sequentially up to 180 DPV.

 

Results
The vaccine evaluated in Georgia induced a poor immune-response in calves after a single vaccination, with seroconversion rate reaching 70% only against A-GVII and Asia1 strains, followed by a rapid decay of Ab (almost all animals negative 90 DPV). In contrast, seroconversion and neutralizing titres suggestive of protection were observed 14 DPV in a high proportion of small ruminants (80-90%) for all four vaccine strains, but Ab decreased fast. With the booster vaccination, both large and small ruminants, tested one month later, showed a significant enhancement of Ab titres, which largely overcame the putative protection threshold of 1/100; again, Ab titres declined fast so that only 50% animals still showed protective Ab levels 90 days after the second vaccination.
In Armenia, where only calves were analysed, early (14 DPV) seroconversion approached 100% for type O (94%) and for the type A Iran-05 vaccine strain (88%), with VNT protective levels in most animals. Differently, it was not higher than 67% for the other two strains, with low neutralizing titres. Ab titres dropped rapidly for all the four vaccine strains. The booster effect was still perceivable in the sampling obtained 90 days after re-vaccination, but a proportion of animals of 25% for type O, 37% for type A and 62% for type Asia1 was already declined to negative, suggesting a short duration of immunity.

 

Discussion
Taken together, the results lead to estimate that both the vaccines evaluated are not expected to induce a protective and long-lasting population immunity, even after a second vaccination. Insufficient virus payload combined with rapid decay of antibodies could be the main issue for the modest performance of the evaluated vaccines.

Click to rate this post!
[Total: 113 Average: 4.7]
Share on facebook
Share on twitter
Share on linkedin

A. Dekker

C. Baars

1 Virology department, Wageningen Bioveterinary Research, Houtribweg 39, 8221RA Lelystad, the Netherlands

Introduction
To study heterologous protection against FMDV SAT2 we performed 2 potency tests with SAT2/SAU/2000 as vaccine strain and SAT2/BOT/18/09 or SAT2/LIB/40/2012 as challenge strain. However, the results of such studies are influenced by both the vaccine match and the vaccine potency. To estimate the vaccine match as well as the homologous potency we tested the sera of these 2 potency tests in VNTs against both the vaccine and challenge virus, as well as serum samples from 3 homologous potency tests with SAT2/SAU/2000. The objective of the study was to investigate if the heterologous potency divided by the homologous potency is similar to the r1-value

Materials and methods
Virus neutralisation test were performed using 100 TCID50/well of the VNT virus and duplicates of 2-fold dilutions series of the sera. With the results of the homologous and heterologous VNTs, r1-values were calculated. The relation between SAT/2/SAU/200 neutralising antibody titres and dose (and other possible explanatory variables) was analysed by normal linear regression. The relation between neutralising antibody titres and protection (and other possible explanatory variables) was analysed in a generalised linear model using the logit link function. Similarly, the relation between dose and protection was analysed to determine the potency against heterologous challenge. All statistical analyses were performed in R.

Results
The geometric mean r1-value SAT2/SAU/2000 vaccinated cattle for SAT2/BOT/18/09 was 0.05 <0.04, 0.06>. The geometric mean r1-value SAT2/SAU/2000 vaccinated cattle for SAT2/LIB/40/2012 was 0.1 <0.09, 0.12>. There was a good correlation between vaccine dose and neutralising antibody response 21 days post-vaccination (n=80). Also, in both the homologous and heterologous challenged cattle, a higher neutralising antibody titre correlated with a higher probability of protection. However, the relation between VNT titre and protection was different in cattle challenged with the homologous virus compared to the cattle challenged with the heterologous virus. The potency ratio of SAT2/SAU/2000 vaccine with SAT2/BOT/18/09 challenge was 0.004 and for SAT2/LIB/40/2012 challenge 0.06 which lower than the r1-value.

Conclusion
The potency ratio in both experiments is lower than the r1-value determined using the sera collected in the same experiments. The estimated titre needed for 50% homologous protection was relatively low compared to the titres found in the experiments, hence resulting in a high estimate of the homologous potency. The difference in the relationship between antibody response and protection when using homologous challenge or heterologous challenge was striking. Further analysis by liquid phase blocking ELISA will be necessary.

Click to rate this post!
[Total: 113 Average: 4.7]
Share on facebook
Share on twitter
Share on linkedin

S. Fèvre

D. Sherman, P. Motta, N. Lyons, K. Sumption, P. Bastiaensen

1 World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), 12, rue de Prony, 75017 Paris, France (*) s.fevre@oie.int
2 European Commission for the Control of Foot-and-Mouth Disease (EuFMD), FAO,
Viale delle Terme di Caracalla, 00153 Rome, Italy

 

Veterinary paraprofessionals (VPPs), often referred to as paravets, collectively represent a spectrum of workers in the field of animal health who may be trained from a few weeks (community-based animal health workers) to several years (Bachelor’s degree), but are not regarded as veterinarians and cannot be qualified as such, which limits their relative scope of activities. VPPs encompass a wide range of categories, e.g., vaccinators, field animal health assistants, laboratory bench workers, meat inspectors and veterinary nurses, to name a few. These professionals work either in the private or public sector as part of a veterinary team, under the direction of a qualified, certified, veterinarian.

In Africa, veterinary paraprofessionals have been active for decades greatly outnumbering veterinarians, particularly in remote areas, and have been successfully deployed in a variety of tasks and campaigns, such as the eradication of rinderpest. VPPs in Africa still frequently play a critical role in delivery of preventative and associated services in animal health. Since the adoption of the global programme to eradicate peste des petits ruminants (PPR), there is renewed interest in supporting this cadre of veterinary staff and identifying how the recently adopted OIE Competency and Curricula Guidelines for VPPs could be used to improve their training and promote standard setting, recognition and licensing of VPPs by veterinary statutory bodies.

Several initiatives, led by the OIE and EuFMD, are currently underway to strengthen the competency acquisition and recognition mechanisms and establish models for sustainable practices providing high quality delivery of “last mile” VPP services. These models will enhance preventative approaches against PPR, FMD and other transboundary animal diseases (TADs) and identify levers to amplify the impact that several categories of VPPs might have on attaining the objective of eradicating PPR by 2030. These include legislative reform or adaptation of regulations, curriculum development, board certification or -at least – licensing and continuous professional development (CPD). These initiatives are supported by the donor community (AFD, BMZ, DTRA, BMGF) with beneficiary countries to be identified shortly in West, Southern and Eastern Africa.

Click to rate this post!
[Total: 113 Average: 4.7]
Share on facebook
Share on twitter
Share on linkedin

P. Durr

K. Graham, C. Cowled, M. Thatcher, P. Hurley, D. Beckett, J. Freeman, M. Newton, W. Scobell

1CSIRO-Australian Centre for Disease Preparedness, Geelong, Australia;

2CSIRO Health & Biosecurity, Geelong, Australia;

3CSIRO Oceans & Atmosphere, Melbourne, Australia;

4Bureau of Meteorology, Melbourne, Australia,

5NewtonGreen Technologies, Newcastle, New South Wales, Australia.

Introduction

In controlling FMD epidemics, an important tool is the epidemiological investigation that seeks to determine the source of the farm-level outbreak. Traditionally this has been undertaken by applying questionnaires during farm visits, but results are often inconclusive. To address this, we have developed a web-based application called SPREAD – System for Preparedness and Response to Emergency Animal Diseases – that will allow veterinarians to access relevant data to inform their investigations. However, to be truly useful, this “decision support system” requires the processing of large amounts of data and in near real-time.

Materials and methods

SPREAD uses a “loosely coupled” architecture wherein end-user access is via the web, but any requests for undertaking data analyses and modelling are handled by intermediate “Application Programming Interface”. The API then passes the request onto a high-performance computer, which following the processing of the data and the running of models, returns results back to the API, and then back the user.

Results

SPREAD is complex software, and accordingly is being built in phases. Stage 1, which is substantially complete, enables the visualisation of epidemics, wind-borne dispersion risk assessments and the construction of FMDV genomic networks. Datasets from historical FMD outbreaks in Europe have been collated for validation exercises as well as providing new insight into underlying meteorological processes driving these.

Discussion

The concept of integrating whole-genomic sequencing data with wind dispersion modelling was developed from the experience of the 2007 UK FMD outbreak. However, this pioneering work was undertaken retrospectively, and to date no system has been developed that will enable transmission pathways to be determined in near real-time. Whilst the SPREAD application will address this for Australia, it is being built so as to be run for FMD epidemics in any country, thus encouraging international collaborative partnerships to ensure ongoing funding for maintenance and enhancements.

Click to rate this post!
[Total: 113 Average: 4.7]
Share on facebook
Share on twitter
Share on linkedin

P. Compston

G Limon, A Sangula, C Auma, J Onono, N Lyons, D King and B Häsler

1 Veterinary Epidemiology and Public Health Group, Royal Veterinary College, Hawkshead Lane, AL9 7TA, UK

2 The Pirbright Institute, Ash Rd, Pirbright, Woking GU24 0NF, UK

3 Foot-and-mouth Disease National Reference Laboratory, Embakasi, Nairobi, Kenya

4 Department of Agriculture, Livestock and Fisheries, Directorate of Veterinary Services, Nakuru, Kenya

5 Department of Public Health, Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Agriculture and Veterinary Sciences, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya

6 European Commission for the Control of Foot-and-Mouth Disease, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy

Introduction

Endemic disease can be defined as continually persisting within a local population, with outbreaks at a consistent frequency unless large-scale changes to disease control or epidemiology occur. The OIE terrestrial code defines an outbreak as the occurrence of one-or-more cases in an epidemiological unit; however, this can be difficult to use in endemic situations. Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is considered endemic in Kenya. Government veterinary services are responsible for monitoring and responding to outbreaks. This study aimed to identify the number of FMD outbreaks in Nakuru County, Kenya in 2019 and understand the working definition of an FMD outbreak.

Methods

A workshop was held in Nakuru County with 11 sub-county veterinary officers (SCVOs), three veterinary officials based at County headquarters and one national para-veterinarian. Outbreak data were collected from county and national government veterinary departments.

Results

Participants defined an FMD outbreak as a farmer-reported index case, usually with samples taken for laboratory confirmation, plus subsequent cases on neighbouring farms. Some outbreaks were described as discrete events, well controlled with vaccination and quarantine, and others as longer, less well-defined events described as “persistent” or “un-controlled” that would show geographical spread. These “persistent” outbreaks were portrayed as complicated due to incomplete or delayed ring vaccination and resultant outbreak spread, and treatment of FMD lesions prior to laboratory investigation preventing accurate serotyping.

In 2019, four serotypes were identified in Nakuru: A, 0, SAT-1 and SAT-2. Nakuru’s veterinary department reported a different number of outbreaks to the government FMD laboratory, Nairobi, due to discrepancies in categorisation based on sample serotyping.

Conclusions

A clear, standardised outbreak definition was not used in this context. An agreed outbreak definition would support Kenya’s progression through the Progressive Control Pathway for FMD, enhancing reports of disease frequency based on passive surveillance and allowing development of robust, responsive mitigation measures.

Click to rate this post!
[Total: 113 Average: 4.7]
Share on facebook
S